After the great spectacle of popular religiosity during the Traslación of the Black Nazarene or Poong Hesus Nazareno in Quiapo, Manila, the whole country gears for another grand pageantry of popular devotion in the coming feast of Sto Niño on January 20–the third Sunday of January.
The feast of the Sto. Niño (Holy Child Jesus) is celebrated annually in January in many parts of the Philippines. The most prominent of them all, however, is in the biggest city in southern Philippines–Cebu–the cradle of Christianity in the Philippines. The most significant symbol of this historical episode is the relic of Santo Niño de Cebú. The Santo Niño de Cebú (Cebuano: Balaang Bata sa Sugbu, Filipino: Ang Banal na Sanggol ng Cebu) is associated with a religious image of the Christ Child widely venerated as miraculous by Filipino Catholics. It is the oldest Catholic relic in the Philippines, originally given in 1521 as a gift by the Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan to Cebu’s local chieftain, Rajah Humabon, and his wife as a baptismal gift.
The shrine has its own statue of Sto. Niño in its front area near the main entrance door. The statue is enclosed in a protective fiberglass container. It is the second most popular statue in the shrine, second only to the statue of the dark skinned Christ crucified on the cross. It is, indeed, a perfect example of contrast as the two statue faced each other at the entrance of the shrine: the child Jesus with a cute innocent smile and the adult Jesus in pain on the cross. Devotees criss cross, in going from one statue to the other, to seek divine intervention and guidance amidst their everyday travails and struggles.
The people usually touch, kiss, bow or wipe with their handkerchief as they pray in front of the statue of Sto. Niño. Sometimes they offer flowers at the foot of the statue. There is a special ritual, however, that devotees do in front of the statue Sto Niño statue–people knocking on the glass. Nobody knows who started this ritual, when this ritual begun and what this ritual truly symbolized. Perhaps the best explanation I can surmise for this ritual is this is a popular expression of the devotees’ complete trust in the words of Jesus in the gospel of Matthew (Matthew 7: 7-8):
Ask, and it will be given you;
search, and you will find;
knock, and the door will be opened for you.
For everyone who asks receives,
and everyone who searches finds,
and for everyone who knocks, the door will be opened.
Every January 9, the Traslación of the Black Nazarene (commemorating the “solemn transfer” of the image’s copy from Quirino Grandstand to Quiapo) makes its way along the streets of Manila through a 6-kilometer-long procession. An estimated number of 3 million people are expected to participate and witness the event, which may last about 22 hours as in previous years. The traslación is undoubtedly the biggest one-day public display of popular religiosity in the Philippines, or perhaps, the whole world.
The Black Nazarene ( in Filipino: Poóng Itím na Nazareno, Hesus Nazareno) is a life-sized image of a dark-skinned, kneeling Jesus Christ carrying the Cross enshrined in the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene in Quiapo, Manila.
Thousands of devotees of the Black Nazarene, some wearing maroon shirts and carrying white towels, and barefooted have started the hours-long journey through the streets of Manila early morning today. The Black Nazarene will be accompanied by throngs of people with many trying to climb onto the carossa carrying the miraculous image. Devotees scramble to touch the statue as part of their prayer and expression of devotion.
Many devotees of Poong Hesus Nazareno, especially those coming from Parañaque, Las Piñas and Cavite area, pass by the shrine on the way to Quiapo. Many of them in barefoot wear maroon t-shirt with the image of Poong Hesus Nazareno, carry white towels and maroon handkerchief with the image of Poong Hesus Nazareno and some carry the statue of Poong Hesus Nazareno. They say a little prayer in front of the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help inside the shrine and the shrine’s statue of crucified Christ at the entrance of the shrine, before they continue their journey to Quiapo.
We don’t have a statue of Poong Hesus Nazareno in the shrine but we have the statue of the dark skinned Christ crucified on the cross at the entrance of the shrine. This statue is easily the most favorite statue in the shrine. Many devotees crowd the statue, touching, wiping and kissing it. Many can be seen crying in front of the statue. At least every six months, the shrine needs to repaint the statue because the paint has faded after all the wiping and kissing of the statue by the thousands of devotees.
For many devotees in the shrine, the statue is a tangible representation of our Lord Jesus whom they can touch and kiss. When they touch and kiss the statue they believe that they already touch Jesus. And because they have touched him, they were able to bring to him their petitions and pleas. Perhaps, another reason for its popularity is because the devotees can see their own sufferings in the sufferings of the crucified Christ. Because of this, they feel that Christ on the cross identifies with their own sufferings.
Watching the devotees wiping the statue of the crucified Christ with their handkerchief or bandanna then wiping it on themselves reminds me of the story of Veronica who met Jesus carrying the cross to Calvary. According to Church tradition, Veronica was moved with pity when she saw Jesus carrying his cross to Golgotha and gave him her veil that he might wipe his forehead. Jesus accepted the offering, held it to his face, and then handed it back to her—the image of his face was miraculously impressed upon Veronica’s veil.
I believe that the experience of Veronica, encountering Jesus on his way to Calvary, is the same experience of the millions of devotees in the shrine and in Quiapo. When devotees wipe the statue of the crucified Christ in the shrine and Poong Hesus Nazareno in Quiapo, the crucified face of Christ becomes impressed upon their handkerchief or bandanna. Their handkerchief or bandanna bearing the crucified face of Christ becomes a great resource for them in their life-journey especially in their daily struggles and hardships. When devotees wiped their handkerchief or bandanna bearing the crucified face of Christ on their bodies, they experienced Jesus touching and embracing their tired and worn out bodies. They can sense Jesus’ solidarity and identification with their suffering and trials in life. This gives them the greatest hope to continue to face life’s difficulties and reach their aspirations because Christ has also experienced pain and suffering. Like Christ, they will also resurrect and emerge victorious amidst the seemingly insurmountable problems in life.
It is also important to remember that the celebration of the traslacion of Poong Hesus Nazareno still falls within the Christmas season. We are in the Wednesday after the Epiphany of Lord, which is part of the Christmas celebration. This means that the passion and suffering of Jesus cannot be separated from the incarnation of Christ–God becoming flesh and dwelling among us. When the Son of God became human, he was prepared to embrace our pain and suffering, including death. If we are to truly live the spirit of Christmas, therefore, we must also be prepared to identify with the mission of Jesus and follow Jesus’ words and deeds, which led to his suffering and death on the cross.
There is no reference to the story of St Veronica and her veil in the canonical Gospels. The closest thing in the gospel about Veronica is the miracle of the woman who was healed by touching the hem of Jesus’s garment (Luke 8:43–48)
“Be ready to intercede with every form of help for each human heart and all the peoples … especially for those who have heavy ordeals in life due to suffering, poverty and every form of afflictions… Mother of Perpetual Help, accept this humble offering and place it in the Heart of Your Son,”
– St. John Paul II in Baclaran
Filipinos have embraced Mary, Our Mother of Perpetual Help, as their own mother. From the moment that Our Mother of Perpetual Help arrived in the Philippines in 1906, Filipinos took her into their own homes and communities. Many devotees fondly call Our Mother of Perpetual Help “Mama Mary” (Mother Mary). It may sound sentimentalist to some but to many devotees it expresses their deep devotion and childlike dependence on Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Just like Marvin L. Maderas who in October 14, 2014, wrote a thanksgiving letter to Our Mother of Perpetual Help which she fondly calls Mama Mary,
Dear Mama Mary,
I cannot stop thanking you for the blessings you have given me. I was jobless and hopeless then. I prayed to You for a job and You found me one in Manila, near your shrine. I tried to make it every Wednesday to attend to the novena asking for a more permanent job so that I can continue to support my children in their college education. You not only given me a regular employment but you restored me to my previous job in my hometown. O Mama Mary, You are really the kindest of all mothers for granting my prayers and giving me this extra gift! I am now working in our place and going back to our home daily and sleeping every night beside my youngest daughter. I can now watch her as she grows up into a lady. Nothing is impossible to you and your generosity is beyond expectation. Thank you, thank you so much Mama Mary. I promise to proclaim Your miraculous intervention in every opportunity that I have. Amen
Mary of Baclaran is the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help enshrined on the altar of the shrine. The original icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help is enshrined in Rome in the Church of St. Alphonsus Liguori (Chiesa di Sant’Alfonso di Liguori all’Esquilino in Italian). It is a Byzantine (Eastern Orthodox Church) icon painted sometime between 1350 and 1450 AD in the island of Crete by an unknown iconographer (painter of icons).
Unlike other objects of devotions to the Blessed Mother in the Philippines which are usually images or statues of Western origin, Our Mother of Perpetual Help is an icon of Eastern origin. Not all devotees know that Our Mother of Perpetual Help is an icon let alone an Eastern icon. Many are unfamiliar that this icon comes from the Eastern Church tradition. This comes to the fore when devotees comment on the beauty of Mary in the icon. Many find Mary in the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help different from the smooth, fair, and beautiful faces of Mary they have been used to in images or statues of Mary of Western origin, like Fatima, Lourdes, or Rosary. This highlight a significant reality that Filipinos’ standard of religious beauty has, for a long time, been conditioned by Western standards, symbolism and spirituality.
The unfamiliarity with the Eastern spirituality and understanding of the icon adds to the mystery of the icon. This is symbolized by the location of the icon at the shrine—enshrined at the top of the altar with no physical access for devotees. Despite the inaccessibility of the icon, however, devotees find creative ways to reach the icon. I remember the story of Fr. Maguire on a one Wednesday when he just finished the blessing of pious objects. A woman approached him and said, “Can I go in and touch the image of the Blessed Mother?” He said, “How do you intend to do that?” He had an image in his mind of her trying to climb the bronze decorations above the Tabernacle to reach the icon. She said simply, however, “I just touch the tabernacle; the icon is connected to it.”
For many devotees, the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help seems to be full of paradoxes: distant yet near, mysterious yet familiar, unattractive yet inviting, and alienating yet fascinating. Indeed, there is a profound mystery and universal appeal in the icon that transcends the physical and natural as Clement M. Henze suggests,
It appeals to the supernatural within us; to something, therefore, that is wider than the world; to something that is not confined to race, or color, or country; to something that is not determined by artistic theories or artistic values, be they proper to the East or to the West.
Despite all these, Filipinos loved the icon of Mary of Baclaran. How can a strange foreign icon become so popular and well-loved in the Philippines, not to mention in many parts of the world where there is widespread devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help? Brazilian Redemptorist Fr. J. Ulysses da Silva, C.Ss.R. tries to make sense of this enigma,
[W]e are faced with an Icon that in itself does not belong to the Catholic tradition of the Roman Rite, or to western religiosity, as we know it and inherited it with our paintings and devotional images. How was it possible for this Icon to be welcomed in such an amazing way by the devotional world of the west? What process would have had to happen for the mandate of Pius IX to us Redemptorists to have such an international effect and for peoples of different cultures to feel such a strong affection for a typically Byzantine Icon? Or could it be that we have taken an Icon of eastern culture and conferred a new meaning upon it, so that it might penetrate our religious culture?
Appeal of the Icon to our Indigenous Religiosity
There must be something in the icon of Mary Our Mother of Perpetual Help that appeal profoundly to the Filipinos’ sense of religiosity, or as da Silva suggests, Filipino devotees could have conferred a new meaning upon it consonant with their cultural and religious idiosyncrasies. Fr. Nico Perez also ponders on the attraction of the icon to Filipino devotees and posits that it has something to do with the practical advantages of it being an icon. Unlike a statue, a copy of the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help can be easily placed on their wallets. Thus, the icon is always with them wherever they go. It would be inconvenient doing the same thing to a statue. In other words, Our Mother of Perpetual Help as an icon has the character of accessibility (availability), mobility (transportability) and physicality (presence)—qualities which always appeal to and sustains popular religiosity.
In the previous chapter, we saw how our ancestors also made larauan (icons) made from wood, stone, or ivory which are representation of the invisible society coexisting with their material world. In other words, these larauan served as the bridge to the spiritual world. The icon of OMPH appeals to the devotees because it served as a window to eternity in the same way that their ancestors’ larauan served as bridge to the higher heavens.
Rootedness in the Church Tradition and Teaching on Mary
Before Pope Pius IX entrusted the icon to the Redemptorist in 1866, it took an almost 500 year’s journey from Crete to Rome. The miraculous icon was painted or written in the 14th century in the island of Crete. The story of the journey of the icon from Crete to Rome is a fascinating one. It is a long journey replete with miraculous anecdotes. One very significant observation is that from the very beginning of the journey of the icon, the protagonists of the veneration have been mostly lay people: the merchant who ‘stole’ the icon, the family who came into possession of it and the girl to whom Our Lady appeared in a dream so as not to be forgotten. Through many ordinary people, sinners even, Mary was directing people where the Icon should go and where it should be enshrined for veneration. This may also hold true in Baclaran.
The story of the icon, however, cannot be traced only from the 14th century as the icon represents the hundreds of years of church’s tradition, teaching and reflection on the role of Mary in God’s mission beginning from the Council of Ephesus in 431, which gave the title to Mary, as Mother of God. The original Greek word used in this church dogma was theotokos which means God-bearer. Mary was chosen to be the bearer of God-made-man.
The teachings and faith declarations of the church on Mary, however, was based on the scriptures and witness’ accounts of her actual life here in earth. Therefore, the icon also bears the actual life of Mary. To kiss an icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help is to show love towards Virgin Mary herself, not just to the wood and paint making up the physical substance of the icon. Veneration of the icon as entirely separate from Mary’s life is inconceivable. Indeed, we can say that the icon is a relic of the living Mary; an icon of a life lived in the fullness of God’s grace: “Hail Mary full of Grace.”
The icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, therefore, is more than a work of art. It is a sacred testament which reveals the church’s profound development in the understanding, belief, and recognition of Mary as the Icon of Trinitarian love. The icon is not mentioned in the scriptures but expressed centuries of church’s traditions and teachings on Mary as well as veneration and devotion of people through the years. In order to understand the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, therefore, we need to understand the theological and spiritual role of Mary as proclaimed by the church through the centuries. As Fr. da Silva reiterates,
The Icon itself is normally not the object of devotion or veneration, as are our pictures and images of saints. It is totally integrated into a broader context, as a sacramental reference to the contemplation of the mystery of Christ and the Trinity. It is an invitation to contemplate the History of Salvation in its mystery dimension, that is, as a fulfillment of the salvific plan of God.
By containing the church’s teachings and traditions, the icon is important means of evangelization. As the document The Shrine: Memory, Presence and Prophecy of the Living God says, “The icon as an instrument for evangelization especially about the life and theology on Mary. Marian shrines in particular provide an authentic school of faith based on Mary’s example and motherly intercession.”
Synthesis of Marian iconography/archetypes
Church’s tradition and teachings on Mary is not only ingrained in the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help. The icon is a product of centuries of tradition of iconographic archetypes. Each of these archetype contributed to the final art and meaning of the icon. Ferero states that if we wish to understand the original and overall significance of icons, we must refer back to the iconographic archetypes that produced them.
The icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help is at the tail end of a long creative, artistic and theological process. [T]he original icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help was written by the iconographer at a time when the Christian art of symbols was reaching the end of its creative process. As a result it becomes a synthesis of the fundamental elements of earlier Marian iconography. Being at the tail end, it gains much of the insights, spirituality and meaning of previous icons.
Let us now examine briefly the iconographic archetypes contained in icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help.
There are five Marian archetypes that are significantly present in the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help. They originally appear in a number of other fundamental iconographic themes or compositions. Ferero enumerates these archetypes as the Virgin Mother, the Mother of God as Empress, the Orant, the Hodegetria and the Eleusa. All other types and models, including the Virgin of the Passion, are derived from these five archetypes.
Upon her veil are three stars, which represent her eternal virginity: Mary was “always a virgin, before, during and after the birth of Jesus Christ.”
Mother of God as Empress
Besides Christ, the basis of all iconography, no other subject has been more depicted than Mary, the Theotokos (Greek for “Mother of God”, literally “God-Bearer”). The icon of Theotokos represent the first human being who realized the goal of the Incarnation: the deification of man.
On her left hand the Virgin holds the hand of he who holds the universe in his hand and whom neither heaven nor earth can contain. The words of the Akathistos hymn read as follows:
“He who sits in glory, on the throne of Divinity, Jesus, the Supreme God, came in a veil of cloud, into the arms of the Immaculate, and brought salvation to those who cried out, ‘Glory, 0 Christ, to your power’” (Od. 4).
“Hail to you who bear he who sustains all” (Od. 1). “Hail to you, the seat of God, the Infinite one; hail to you, the portal of the sacred mystery … Hail, to this throne more holy than that of the cherubim; hail seat more beautiful than that of the seraphim” (Od. 15).
Mary as intercessor. In this type, Mary is shown with arms in ornate position, with Christ enclosed in a circle in her womb. “Of the Sign,” is a reference to the words of Isaiah 7:14, “The Lord himself shall give you a sign. Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel.”
The Mother of God as one Praying (Orant) is a symbol of the ascension of the soul, through the experience of death, towards the resurrection and participation in the mystical life of Christ. It culminates in the hereafter but we are also called upon to experience it at specific moments of our life on earth, such as times of prayer. This is why the celebrant raises his arms during the Eucharistic prayer and invites the faithful to raise their hearts to God, like Mary as the one Praying and in the scene of the Annunciation, the Ascension and Pentecost.
Eleusa means tender mercy. In this type, the Theotokos holds her Son, who touches his face to hers and wraps at least one arm around her neck or shoulder. This icon type, showing the poignantly intimate relationship between mother and child, is much beloved by Orthodox worshippers, and has been often painted through the centuries
The Eleusa does not offer a moving depiction of the relationship between Mother and Son, instead it expresses the most profound experience of the life of the human soul in God, obtained not from a psychical perspective but in the world of the spirit. The Eleusa focuses more on the human and maternal dimension of this Marian attribute.
Hodegetria depicts Mary as the guide. In this type, the Ever Virgin Mary is holding Christ and pointing toward Him, as a guide to God and salvation.
It is interesting to note that Mary in the Eastern tradition does not give so much emphasis on Mary in her own right. In Byzantine icons, Mary is never depicted by herself, autonomously, separately but always depicted with her divine son—Jesus.
Mary’s right hand is, above all, the Hodegetria hand, that is to say, the hand of she who shows the path to Christ, who is the Way, the Truth and the Life. Therefore, as in the wedding feast at Cana, she appears to say to believers: “Do whatever he tells you” (Jn 2:5).
Virgin of the Passion
The icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help is an example of the Virgin of the Passion type of icon. When we say: Our Mother of Perpetual Succour, we have to include the icon of the Virgin of the Passion and the Marian devotion that has appropriated it.
Da Silva summarized all these iconographical elements in the icon:
Our Lady of Perpetual Help is an iconographic representation of the Theotókos, the Mother of God, in the style of the post-Byzantine school of Crete, between the 15th and 17th centuries. Unlike the Icons that present Mary in a majestic attitude, Our Lady of Perpetual Help bears the same characteristics of serenity, but in a maternal attitude, lovingly holding her son. And while holding him, she presents her Son to whoever is contemplating her. More specifically, Our Lady of Perpetual Help is part of the iconography proper to the Virgin of the Passion, in which the Son glimpses his future sufferings and the serene face of Mary is mixed with something like angst. The child clings to her thumb and one of his sandals is loosened from his foot. The same Archangel Gabriel who announced the Incarnation to her, now with the Archangel Michael shows the Child the instruments of the Passion.
All the theological elements that these iconographic archetypes should be present if we are to develop a healthy and balanced devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. In understanding the meaning of the icon, we need to consider all the iconographic archetypes. In the past, we have stressed so much the intercessory part of Mary but we have neglected the part of the icon where Mary shows the way and Jesus looking beyond the passion. The intercessory dimension of Marian icons is the least powerful part of the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help; the strongest is the gaze and the hand.
What’s in a Name?
The title Our Mother of Perpetual Help also evokes profound appeal that draws the attention of Filipino devotees. The name—Our Mother of Perpetual Help—has also contributed to the phenomenal rise of the devotion in Baclaran. The title Our Mother of Perpetual Help originated in the text itself accompanying the icon. The Blessed Virgin herself chose this name to serve as an encouragement to us all to have recourse to her with complete confidence in all our needs. Let us reflect on each of the name of the title and it’s appeal to the devotees.
Mother is written in the icon. MP OY = Meter Theou: Mother of God (in the two upper comers of the icon). Our Mother of Perpetual Help is one of the few titles that calls Mary, mother (the only other titles that I can think of are Mother of God and Mother of Mercy). Other titles are mostly called our Lady of _______________ which is oftentimes connected to a particular place. Other times, Our Mother of Perpetual Help is also called Our Lady of Perpetual Help. Indeed, Our Mother of Perpetual Help is universal; it appeals to us all of our universal experience with our own mothers. Mother is a more universal title. While others are called by their local names, Our Mother of Perpetual Help transcends the local. Fr. Ulysses da Silva expounds,
It is not a title bound to a location (such as Aparecida, Lourdes, Fatima, Medjugorje, etc.), nor to a privilege or accolade of Mary (like Assumption, Mystical Rose, etc.), nor to the Passion event, as would be the original characterization of the Icon. It is an invocation that identifies the maternal attitude of Mary in relation to her Son and to all of us. It is a universal title in relation to time as well as space, whenever or wherever someone is found in need or in danger.
Similarly, Pope Francis in his homily on the celebration of the first feast of Mary, Mother of the Church on the 21st of May, 2018 in the Vatican, said that Mary is not referred to as “the lady” or “the widow of Joseph,” but is rather called “the mother of Jesus.” Mary’s motherhood is emphasized throughout the Gospels, from the Annunciation to the foot of the cross.
The adjective perpetual (laging) is always active rather than passive. The emphasis is not just on the help but on the active quality of help. This implies that God through the prayers of Our Mother of Perpetual Help is helping us now, as in the past and in the future, in all our predicaments.
Saklolo is almost a desperate cry for help in distress. This is the plea of many devotees: help me, saklolo! Many are desperate, they have no one to turn to; any help will do. Mary under the title of Ina ng Laging Saklolo (Our Mother of Perpetual Help) appeals to the very situation that the thousands of devotees find themselves in real life.
We are all creatures in need as we sought the help of God and of one another through prayer and action. Those who have freely received blessings are called to freely give and those who have not yet received theirs petitions are encouraged to continue to ask. By expressing our devotion and praying the novena to Our Mother of Perpetual Help, we accept that the help we ask and receive should be perpetual never to be stopped and disconnected from each other.
Whenever we show the Icon and ask the people: Who is the perpetual help? Most of them immediately answer: Mary is the perpetual help. Most devotees think that the help and blessings comes from Mary. But Mary is the Mother of perpetual help; if Mary then is the mother of God—Jesus, Jesus then is the perpetual help.
The perpetual help of Our Mother of Perpetual Help ultimately originates from the perpetual generosity and unconditional love of God to everyone through the devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help.
Put differently, understanding the meaning of perpetual help in the context of the whole icon, means the perpetual showing of Mary to the devotees Jesus as the Way, the Truth and the Life. Thus, the name, Our Mother of Perpetual Help can also be appropriately called, Our Lady of the Way as in the iconographic type of hodegetria.
Rediscovering the Icon
Since the Redemptorists introduced the icon to the Filipinos in 1906, the Redemptorist has been instructing the devotees about the meaning and nature of Our Mother of Perpetual Help as an icon. The missionaries also introduced the history and the meaning of the different parts of the icon. The earliest extant of Novena in 1926 explains and meditates on the different parts of the icon. The second earliest Novena in 1936 also includes an explanation and meditation of the different parts of the icon.
The instructions about the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, focused mainly on the meaning of the parts of the icon and the history of the icon from its origin in Crete to its arrival in the Philippines.
The instructions, however, only mentions the Eastern theology, spirituality and background of the icon in passing. The division within Christianity between the East and the West may have contributed to a lack of appreciation of the Eastern tradition and theology let alone the Eastern background and spirituality of the icon. The return to Eastern spirituality of the icon was only given a boost after more than 100 years of the mandate of Pope Pius IX. The icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help is one of the greatest Marian gifts of the Eastern Church to the Western Church. Yet, it was overwhelmed by the explosion of the devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help.
It is essential to understand the background and purpose of Eastern iconography in order to understand the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Instructing about the icon without an understanding of Eastern iconography will only scratch the tip of the iceberg, as Ferero explains,
To truly comprehend the richness of the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help we must do more than give it a simply vague or even pious look. We need to tune in to the theological message it holds through an iconographic, aesthetic and spiritual ‘reading’ of the symbolic elements it employs.
Because it expresses a foreign culture–the Byzantine culture–it is not easy to decipher. As Ferrero admits,
[F]or those who belong to a different culture from that represented in such images, icons are works of art that are not easy to understand or appreciate. As with all works of symbolic character, they require an authentic introduction. It is not possible, in a spontaneous way, to capture the message of which they are bearers and which they set out to convey.
Moreover, because of the cultural and time gap, it is also one of those icons that have been most exposed to iconographic distortion. Without losing its fundamental symbolic elements, artists have adapted it to the aesthetics of each region, reducing it, in many cases, to a simple devotional image. Due to this localized adaptation, the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Succor has acquired its own context (added to those of the past) in the Marian devotion that it now symbolizes. The sanctuary of Crete, in which it was so venerated as the Virgin of the Passion, has been replaced by altars to Our Mother of Perpetual Help that the devotion has created all over the world. In so doing, it’s rootedness to the iconographic elements–theological and artistic–have been lost in the process.
We will discuss more the Eastern spirituality of Our Mother of Perpetual Help in later chapters.
We have seen how the theological and iconographic elements help us retrieve the original meaning of the icon. Iconographic understanding of the icon, however, is only one side of the pole. The other side of the pole is the current concrete life-situation of the devotees.
Thus, each period need a re-reading and re-reception of the icon according to their context. We need to read the icon in the context of the burning issues of the day, the signs of the times, and the lights and shadows.
As we contemplate the icon, we experience a creative tension between our present situation and the future life in eternity with God which the icon represents. The icon is the encounter between heaven and earth, now and the fullness of time. This is represented in the icon by the interplay between the sad eyes of Mary upon seeing our situation and the golden background of the icon which symbolizes heaven as our future home. Likewise, this is represented in the expression of fear of Jesus as symbolized by his falling sandals upon seeing the cross and the promise of the victory of resurrection.
Icons are doorway, means of access into the age to come. It is a meeting point and a place of encounter with the communion of saints. It makes Mary Our Mother of Perpetual Help in the icon present to us. We participate in the mystery that is depicted. More than an object, the icon is an event. An icon is a proclamation.
The shrine for the devotees has also become an icon. The shrine has become a channel of passage from the present world to the eternal where Our Mother of Perpetual Help dwell.
The icon that devotees, venerate, touch and kiss is a dynamic icon; a living icon, not a dead icon. It carries with it a rich history, spirituality, theology and sacramental efficacy. It is not a magical object which is inertly imbued with vast power and a miraculous object where we bring our petitions but rather a dynamic icon that enters into our life story. The icon is the story of our faith; the summary of our salvation. We are invited to participate in this story and journey. We are invited to enter into God’s story, into Mary’s story; to join our story with the story and journey of the icon.
Ultimately, the whole icon points to Christ. Jesus Christ is our way, truth and life. Christ is the Word who came down to us so that we can come up to God.
(This article is an excerpt from the book Mary of Baclaran: Our Mother of Perpetual Help and Mission Today by Joey Echano, soon to be published)
Ulysses da Silva, C.Ss.R., Our Lady of Perpetual Help and Popular Piety, #12.
 “Give this message to your mother and to your grandfather: Holy Mary of Perpetual Help requires that you remove her from your house, if not, you will all soon die”. Ferrero, The story of An Icon, 133.
 Ulysses da Silva, C.Ss.R., Our Lady of Perpetual Help and Popular Piety, #43.
Lex orandi, lex credendi
The law of praying is the law of believing.
(- An ancient saying of the Church.)
The praying and singing together of the novena by the thousands of devotees at the shrine conveys a special appeal drawing devotees and non-devotees alike. A thanksgiving letter written in January 3, 1951, barely two years after the introduction of the novena, narrates how a non-devotee was drawn to the shrine for the first time because of the novena,
[O]ne day, while I was travelling in a bus which was coming from Cavite City, it was caught in the traffic in the vicinity of Baclaran Church. The crowd of people pushed me along the pathway to the Church until I found myself inside the Church’s patio. I entered the Church and while inside, I heard those beautiful hymns that forced me to forget my loneliness. Then I found out that the people were making a novena in honor of you.
Novena is key to the explosion of devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help in Baclaran. Novena transformed the small wooden chapel in 1948 into a popular shrine and pilgrimage center. Filipino sociologist Manuel Victor Sapitula asserts this in his dissertation:
The introduction of the Perpetual Novena devotion in 1948 was the single most significant development in the transformation of the shrine from a local chapel to a pilgrimage site of national proportions.
Thousands of devotees came in droves after the novena was introduced in 1948. Soon the small chapel couldn’t accommodate the crowd anymore. This paved the way to building a bigger shrine twice, first in 1949 and second in 1954.
The novena prayed in the shrine is not just an ordinary novena; it is called a perpetual novena. A novena is a series of prayers recited over nine days or nine weeks consecutively, usually in preparation for a major feast or to ask for a special favor. The ordinary novena stops after the nine occasions until resumed the next time around, often the following year when connected with feasts, or whenever a devotee decides to resume it privately. A perpetual novena, on the other hand, is a series of nine occasions of prayer but repeated continuously. When one series is finished, it begins again. In practice, it becomes an unending series of weekly sessions, usually associated with a particular day of the week, not necessarily Wednesday. Some stop after nine consecutive Wednesdays of novena but most devotees pray the perpetual novena. We can call them perpetual devotees or devotees for life.
A frequent question about the novena is: Why Wednesday? Hechanova explains that there was no definitive historical answer about the choice of Wednesday (Hechanova 1998). The choice of Wednesday seemed to be a practical choice. Wednesday was the only day vacant in a week where each day was devoted to a particular devotion or saint. For example, Tuesday is for San Antonio de Padua, Thursday is for St. Jude, Friday is Sacred Heart, Our Lady of Lourdes on Saturdays and so on.
As we have mentioned before, there were already various versions of the novena published even before the novena explosion in 1948. The first one was in 1926 and the second one was in 1936. Why did the 1948 novena become an instant hit whereas 1926 and 1936 did not? What was the difference of the 1948 novena from the 1926 and 1936 novena? To answer these questions, we need to examine each version of the novena.
Pre 1948 Novena
The novena to Our Mother of Perpetual Help was first introduced by the Redemptorists to the country immediately after they settled at Opon, Cebu. The first reported recitation of the novena in the country was in the church of Opon in 1907. Novena were also recited during the hundreds of missions that the Redemptorist gave to the barrios in the Visayas and Luzon. We do not have a copy of the text and format of the novena used in Opon and in the barrio missions. These texts, however, most certainly have spread throughout the country.
The novena in 1926, is titled Maikling Pagsisiyam sa Mahal na Virgen sa Tawag na Ina ng Laging Saklolo (Short Novena to the Blessed Virgin under the Title of Mother of Perpetual Help), with an imprimi potest granted by Fr. O’Callaghan, C.Ss.R. and imprimatur given by Fr. Jose Bustamante. It was published by UST Press. Interestingly, this novena was published even before the Redemptorist settled in Baclaran in 1932. We do not know, how many of this novena were printed, but it certainly help in the propagation of the devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help in Luzon.
The novena contained several interesting features. An introductory part contains the narration of the origins of the icon and a brief explanation of the icon. For the nine days novena, each day begins with a meditation focusing on a specific part of the icon and its meaning, then the common prayer for each day and a pagsasanay (exercise) which recommends some forms of call to action. The common prayer is very theocentric and centered on surrendering to the will of God. Clearly the format and text of the novena is intended for individual devotion.
The novena is written in rich and old Tagalog. The daily prayer (PANALANGIN SA ARAO ARAO) of the novena exemplifies this,
Kabanalbanalang Virgen, saklolo sa twitwina ng mga kaluluwang napaaampon sa iyong makainang pagibig: Marapatin mong idalangin ako sa iyong mahal na Anak at Panginoon naming Jesucristo upang kalugdan Niya ang lahat kong panimdim, wika at gawa sa araw na ito at habang ako’y nabubuhay.
Tangapin mo oh! mahal kong Ina ang munting handog ko sa iyo sa pagcisiyam na ito, at ipagkaloob mo sa akin ang biyayang hinihingi ko kung nauukol sa lalong ikalulualhati Niya sa kapurihan mo at ikagagaling ng kaluluwa ko. Siya Nawa.
The 1936 version of the novena is written in English titled Novena in Honor of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour. The Imprimatur was by Francis I. Cosgrave, CSsR. and nihil obstat by William E. Finnemann, Episcopus Auxiliaris. The publisher is not indicated. The format of the novena contains the history of the icon, explanation of the meaning of the parts of the icon, meditation and prayers for each day of the nine days novena
There is an added general remark in the instructions:
The person making the novena should go to confession and Holy Communion at least once during the nine days.
The prayers of the novena should be recited in a church in which the picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is publicly exposed or in your own home before the same picture.
The novena is made by each day reading the set meditation and then reciting the prayers which follow each meditation.
Common Elements between 1926 and 1936 Novena
Both the 1926 and 1936 novena had similar characteristics: Both consist of nine successive days and a meditation each day followed by a common prayer. The format of the novena clearly shows that they were meant for individual devotion not for collective prayer in the church. The theology of both 1926 and 1936 novena shows a high theology of Mary where Mary is shown closer, almost equal, to Jesus. Mary is apart from us bestowed with the highest honor in heaven.
The meditation on the different parts of the icon and its meaning was a strong point of the 1926 and 1936 novena over 1948. This remarkable part disappeared in the 1948, 1951 and 1973 versions of the novena. The most recent 2016 jubilee version of the novena brought back this essential feature.
1948 Novena: Perpetual Novena
The origins of the 1948 Our Mother of Perpetual Help novena in Baclaran can be traced to the United States. A novena in honor of Our Mother of Perpetual Help was began in St. Alphonsus “Rock” Liguori Church, in St. Louis, Missouri, USA in July 11, 1922. In 1924, in the same church, Father Henry Sutton began novenas in which people participated through singing, praying with the priest, rather than remaining silent while the priests prayed. This devotional style which was collective in nature spread throughout the congregation.
In 1928, the novena began by Father Henry Sutton grew to eleven services every Tuesday to accommodate 15,000 people. In 1928, the name “Perpetual Novena” for this new form of devotion was suggested: a Perpetual Novena was to be performed for nine consecutive days (hence novena), but the nine-day cycle can be repeated continuously (hence perpetual). This form is the most impressive Our Mother of Perpetual Help devotional form today. The Perpetual Novena flourished in Australia and United States as well as in India, the Philippines and Singapore. It suffered, however, a gradual decline in Australia, Europe and United States beginning in the 1970s.
The perpetual novena in the country, however, did not begin in Baclaran but in Iloilo. Hechanova recounts that in the year 1946, shortly after the end of the Second World War, American troops, some from the famous Battle of Guadalcanal, found themselves stationed in Iloilo. Among them were Irish-American Catholics from Boston who were delighted to find that St. Clement’s Church in La Paz, Iloilo City, was run by Irish Redemptorists. They were disappointed, however, that the Perpetual Novena then flourishing in the popular Mission Church of the Redemptorists in Boston was not part of church services. Thus, they requested the Redemptorist to start a novena in Ilo-ilo patterned after the novena in Boston.
The novena in Ilo-ilo was followed by Lipa in 1946 and Cebu in 1947. Both were well-attended novena. But they were not as phenomenal as Baclaran.
The first novena in Baclaran was presided by Father Leo English on June, 23, 1948. There were only seventy people present. The following week the number doubled to one hundred and fifty. Before the year ended, more novena sessions had to be added since the original chapel was good for only three hundred people. By the end of 1949, there were eight crowded sessions of the novena, and many others were following it from the parking area. The rest is history.
Sapitula noted that the text of the 1948 Perpetual Novena, contrary to expectations, did not begin as a fixed text but assumed its final form only after months of experimentation. A “core format” of the novena text was established around three months after it was begun, which in turn became the basis of the 1950, 1951 and 1953 editions of the novena booklet (Gornez 2003).
Even as the 1948 novena was public and collective, it’s theological and spiritual orientation bears much resemblance with the individually oriented 1926 and 1936 novena. Both novena emphasized life after death and salvation of the soul. The goal of life in this world is personal sanctification so as to be ready to enter into eternal life after death. Both novena also reflected the high Mariology of pre-Vatican II which promoted a maximalist theological view on Mary that saw Mary as an altogether special creature whose privileges paralleled those of Christ. By putting Mary on a pedestal with all her titles and glories, she becomes distant from the ordinary devotee and the whole church.
Two years after the inauguration of the Perpetual Novena in Baclaran, the prayers were already recited in parishes in Quezon City, Quiapo and Sampaloc in Manila, Taguig, and Marilao, Obando and Barasoain in Bulacan province (entry dated 1-7 April 1950; cited in Gornez 2003). This shows the rapid adoption of the novena by the different parishes in Manila and nearby provinces.
A Prayer for Peace was added to the Novena Prayers each Wednesday in 1951 at the request of Ramon Magsaysay who was then the Minister for defense.
1973 Revised Novena
Nothing changed in the official text of the Perpetual Novena for twenty-five years until Redemptorists and some devotees felt the need for reform. The need for revision emerged in the light of the reforms inspired by Vatican II and the social upheavals in the country and in the world. Hechanova recalls,
In the early 1970s, the Redemptorists of the Manila and Cebu Vice-Provinces set up a common Commission to study how the novena itself could be renewed along the Vatican II principles on liturgy and devotion.
The call for renewal of popular devotion, particularly the renewal of the Novena structure and prayers, was also echoed by Ang Mahal na Birhen: “Novenas will then be renewed by making them more scriptural, avoiding a verbosity present in some of them and a sentimentality less in consonance with today’s religious attitudes.”
One of the strongest points of the 1973 novena is the emphasis on the social dimension of the Christian faith. A closer reading of the 1973 Perpetual Novena reveals that social justice and peace dimensions are given more attention, perhaps as a corrective to the perceived overemphasis on personal needs in the 1948 Perpetual Novena text (Gornez 2003; Hechanova 1998). Ramon Echica claims that it is in the aspect of social justice that the 1973 novena stands out from other popular Marian devotions. Echica contrasted the prayers in the novena of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, for example, with that of the Santo Niňo devotion in Cebu City. Echica considers the Santo Niňo devotion as having an “apolitical nature” extremely lacking in social dimension. He adds that there is hardly any prayer that the Sto. Niňo would disturb and afflict the consciences of people whenever they have been unjust to their fellow men and women as these prayers “do not spell out the broader social and political context of one’s concern” for others. Moreover, prayers in this novena are “most explicitly other-worldly” (2010, 44-45).
On the other hand, Echica cites the prayers of the 1973 Our Mother of Perpetual Help novena as calling devotees to serve the community. Sins against justice, like usury, bribery, and perjury are also virtually condemned when devotees pray that they or others may never involve in them. There are also prayers for workers to take pride in their work and be given just compensation. Echica affirms that these prayers help the devotees to include questions of social justice in their examination of conscience. Echica also underscored the enumerations of petitions of a this-worldly character as one of the distinctive appeal of the 1973 novena:
There is no flight from the world spirituality in this devotion. Furthermore, there is no reference to some apparitions or some extraordinary celestial phenomena, or miracles which may be outside the realm of human causality. It is distinctive at least in terms of quantity of concrete occasion mentioned in the perpetual novena. There are prayers for scenarios that may occur in one’s daily life; worries about finances, misunderstanding with loved ones, choice of recreation, avoidance of prohibited drugs, and temptation to take revenge.
Indeed, concrete needs in concrete situations spur the faithful to their devotions, particularly to the Blessed Virgin. [M]any petitions are not actually for the individual self but for society at large or one’s country in particular.
2016 Jubilee Edition of the Novena
Despite the strong integration of social reality and devotion in 1973 novena, there were other areas that will need reform and improvement in the years to come. As early as the 90s, calls to revise the novena once again began to surface. Among the reasons for the proposed updating was the need to reflect ‘new’ signs of the times in the novena, for example, gender sensitivity, ecological awareness, migrants’ concerns and a more sound theology on Mary. The aims of the revised 2016 novena reflected these issues:
To help in the renewal towards an authentic devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help
To adopt the novena to the signs of the times particularly the new issues and challenges that our world is confronted today.
To express a more healthy and meaningful understanding and practice of devotion to our Blessed Mother.
To incorporate an inclusive language into the novena.
The Prayer for the Sick was also seen as needing some major revision. The 1973 novena seemed to romanticize sickness by projecting an image of the sick who have nothing else they can do about their sickness except to embrace it. God’s compassion and strong desire for the healing of the sick is not much evident. A more redemptive healing not only for that person, but for the whole family was desired.
Here’s a comparison between the 1973 and 2016 Prayer for the Sick:
Lord Jesus Christ * you bore our sufferings and carried our sorrows * in order to show us clearly * the value of human weakness and patience. * Graciously hear our prayers for the sick. * Grant that those who are weighed down * with pain and other afflictions of illness * may realize that they are among the chosen ones * whom you called blessed. * Help them to understand * that they are united with You in Your sufferings * for the salvation of the world. Amen.
Lord Jesus Christ * you bore our sufferings and carried our sorrows * in order to show us clearly * the value of human weakness and patience; * graciously hear our prayer for the sick especially (pause and remember your sick loved ones). Grant that they who are weighed down * with pain and other affliction of illness * may experience God’s healing power and comfort*. Restore them to health* in body and soul* so that they can continue to serve you* and their brothers and sisters. Amen.
There was also the desire to reflect in the novena a more healthy theology about Mary. There was a strong desire to show that the real source of “saklolo” (help) is not Mary but Jesus. A major expression of this in the new novena is changing the response for every petition to Our Mother of Perpetual Help from Loving Mother, HELP US to Loving Mother, PRAY FOR US.
There were also suggestions to make the language of the novena direct the people more to Jesus and to the celebration of the Eucharist. There was also the longing to change the seeming economy outlook to a more healthy outlook of the novena. Other points suggested to include into the revision of the novena were:
a greater appreciation of the lay and avoiding clericalization,
a more healthy expression of solidarity with the poor,
clearer and consistent wording,
better wording about religious vocation,
omitting some repetitive petitions (particularly on death).
There were three new petitions to reflect the new signs of the times particularly on ecology, sanctity of life and peace in the world:
That we may care and protect God’s creation, LOVING MOTHER PRAY FOR US.
That we may defend the human dignity and sanctity of human life from conception to natural death, LOVING MOTHER PRAY FOR US.
That there will be genuine and lasting peace in the world, LOVING MOTHER PRAY FOR US.
An interesting feature of the 2016 novena is the return of the contemplation of the meaning and spirituality of the icon and its parts as an essential part of praying the novena. As the 2016 revised novena states in its introduction,
The purpose of the novena is not just to bring our needs and aspirations to God through the prayers of Our Mother of Perpetual Help but to let Mary bring us to Jesus in order to follow him—the true path to God. This is the main message of the Icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help. It would be a great means, therefore, that in praying the novena for nine days, we contemplate on the meaning of the whole Icon and its parts. The whole purpose of this contemplation is to live our daily lives and experiences in the example of Mary— following the path of Jesus towards true happiness and peace.
The Redemptorist community of Baclaran saw the 150th Jubilee of the icon in 2016 as an opportune time to implement the revision. In the spirit of the 150th Jubilee of the Icon, a new version of the novena was published.
Novena: Prayer of the Communion of the Saints
One of the primary reasons for the explosion of the novena in 1948 was the fact that it was written for public and communal prayer. Whereas the 1926 and 1936 novena were meant to be prayed privately by individual devotees, the 1948 novena brought individual devotees together to pray to Our Mother of Perpetual Help and intercede with one another. The intercessory character of the novena is not just asking the intercession of Mary but of fellow devotees as well. Thus, communal devotion rather than individual devotion catapulted the devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help to national prominence.
The intercessory prayer of the novena instilled a new consciousness upon the devotees. It inculcated the experience that prayer is not just personal but also a prayer for the other and with each other. Indeed, when each devotee goes to the novena, she/he brings her/his own petition but when he/she joins the thousand others who has his/her own individual petitions, each one is transformed that he/she not only pray for his/her own but for and with the others. The Novena helped transform the “I” to “We” consciousness. From a personalist and individualistic attitude, the devotees are not meant to pray only for their own needs but are meant to pray as members of a fellowship, in agreement, remembering that life and the world are not arranged for them as individuals but for the fellowship as a whole. As Karl Rahner states:
A congregation praying, singing, and listening to word of God, is not only an assembly of lonely, solitary people, not only a number of isolated individuals, who impelled by concern for their eternal salvation, gather here for merely practical convenience, in order to try to work out their own private salvation… We are a holy community praising God by praising the glory of the blessed Virgin precisely because in our very salvation we are dependent on this virgin mother of God.
Moreover, the novena experience brings out the essential fact of faith that as church we are a community of both living and dead, interceding for each other. Death does not sever the bonds of the body of Christ. Those who intercede for me are not just my living fellow devotee but even those who have died and are already with God–Mary and all the saints. In this way, the novena truly becomes an experience of the communion of saints. We have no direct route to God only through a relationship mediated and interceded with the communion of the saints, living here on earth and triumphant in heaven. Like Mary, devotees at the shrine are invited to be intercessors not just for one another but for the whole church and the world. As Francia Competente said in July 4, 2016, “I like going to Baclaran Church because I am with the people who are really in need of Mama Mary’s intercession and can feel God’s love thru Mama Mary.”
The novena experience and consciousness recalls for the devotees their indigenous heritage of veneration of the dead. Before Christianity arrived in the country, indigenous Filipinos venerated their deceased ancestors because they are considered still a part of the family and their spirits can have the power to intervene in the affairs of the living. The novena experience has tapped into this primordial worldview of the Filipinos and devotees appropriated it into their warm devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help.
Mary is the role model of intercessory prayer through her intercessory role for us in heaven. We do not pray to Mary, Mary pray with us. Once again, Rahner reiterates,
[N]o doctrine concerning Mary could have importance and significance for us, if it were not true that each of us is responsible for the salvation of his brethren, and can and must intercede for them with prayer and sacrifice and aid. That is why Mary is not only the mother of our Lord, but our mother too.
While novena is central to the devotional experience in the shrine, it is not all there is to the devotion. The experience of devotion is not only the praying of the novena but also the embarking of a faith journey. Devotion as a faith journey is quintessentially conveyed through pilgrimage to Baclaran. We will discuss the notion of devotion as a pilgrimage in the next chapter.
(This article is an excerpt from the book Mary of Baclaran: Our Mother of Perpetual Help and Mission Today by Joey Echano, soon to be published)
 The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: “The Church’s faith precedes the faith of the believer who is invited to adhere to it. When the Church celebrates the sacraments, she confesses the faith received from the apostles – whence the ancient saying: lex orandi, lex credendi (or: legem credendi lex statuat supplicandi, according to Prosper of Aquitaine). The law of prayer is the law of faith: the Church believes as she prays. Liturgy is a constitutive element of the holy and living Tradition.” Catechism of the Catholic Church, #1124.
Mother of Perpetual Help, we choose you as Queen of our homes. We ask you to bless all our families with your tender motherly love.
It is always a wonderful sight when families pray the novena and attend the Eucharist together in the shrine. After the novena and mass, some of them ask the blessing of the celebrant of the novena or mass. Others sit in the shrine benches outside or under the trees to have a picnic. Others go to the restaurants and eateries around the shrine for a family meal together.
A happy and healthy family life is one of the biggest aspiration for many devotees. Like Cynthia Jayson who wrote her experience in a thanksgiving letter on June 17, 2016:
One of the petitions that I have asked for a long time in the novena is to have my own family. I trusted you that this will be achieved despite my fear in child-bearing because of the disability which was the reason for my humped back when I was 11 years old. However, I was able to overcome my fear because of my deep faith in Jesus and you Mama Mary. This is the reason why it was only at the age of 38 that I was able to get married and had 2 children: A four year old boy and a two year old girl. Praise God! Praise to You Mama Mary! So I am happy to bring my whole family—my husband and two children—to your shrine and miraculous picture in wholehearted gratitude to you Our Mother of Perpetual Help.
For many devotees, their family is their greatest source of support. Family is not just the immediate family, but the extended family. Carmelita write about this in a thanksgiving letter on September 28, 2014:
Thank you with all my heart for my siblings, extended family, and friends who have helped me stay afloat financially, emotionally, mentally, and spiritually. Thank you for my sister and brother-in-law who have welcomed me into their home so warmly and generously. I hope and pray that I may be able to give back something in return. Please, Mother, help me pray for their good health, safety, happiness, and long life. Help me, my Mother, so that I can be up on my feet and return their goodness and generosity.
At the same time, family life is one of the biggest trials and challenges of the devotees. Many families of devotees have experienced problems and crisis in relationships as Sylvia wrote in a thanksgiving letter in December 31, 2014:
Thank you very much for all the blessings that you have bestowed upon our whole family. Thank you God the Father for all the trials that we experienced as a whole family especially our marriage which I thought would collapse. From the bottom of my heart, thank you because you did not allow our marriage to break up. And because of the trials that we have experienced as a couple, we became stronger, our understanding for each other has deepened. Thank you that our family is still whole. It is indeed a big blessing that our family is still one until today.
Prayer for family occupies a significant part in the Novena. The novena has a PRAYER FOR THE HOME
Mother of Perpetual Help, * we choose you as Queen of our homes. * We ask you to bless all our families* with your tender motherly love. * May the Sacrament of Marriage * bind husbands and wives so closely together * that they will always be faithful to each other * and love one another as Christ loves His Church.
We ask you to bless all parents, * may they love and cherish the children * whom God has entrusted to them. * May they always give them the example * of a truly Christian life. * Help them to bring up their children * in the love and fear of God. * Bless all children * that they may love, * honor, and obey * their fathers and mothers. To your loving care * we especially entrust the youth of today
Give us all a sense of responsibility * that we may do our part * in making our home * a haven of peace * like your own home at Nazareth. * We take you as our model. * Help us to grow daily in genuine love of God and neighbor * so that justice and peace may happily reign * in the entire family of mankind. Amen.
The latest revision of the novena also added a prayer for the sanctity of life:
That we may defend the human dignity and sanctity of human life from conception to natural death,
Loving Mother pray for us.
Many devotees bring the issues of their family into the shrine. At the beginning, the main channel for bringing these issues was the confession. As the shrine have daily confession, many devotees take the opportunity to celebrate the sacrament of reconciliation. But there are also times that the devotees share inside the confessional moral issues and problems in their family like marital infidelity, couple differences, parent-children gap, birth control, abortion, drug addiction, homosexuality, and many others. Because these are serious cases needing more time and attention beyond the confessional, we usually suggest counseling. From this experience, came the need for establishing a counseling center at the shrine. Thus, the St. Gerard Family Life Center was born.
The Center begun in 1991. It was named after the Redemptorist saint–St. Gerard Majella who is popularly known as “the saint of mothers.” Some people who have no children pray the novena to St. Gerard. Many devotee couples who have not conceived for many years have testified that after they asked the intercession of St. Gerard they were blessed with the gift of a child.
The center has trained and professional volunteer counselors. They give counseling on matters affecting the family, especially responsible parenthood and marital problems. They are available every day.
A sad thing that happens at the shrine are babies abandoned by their mothers and left in the shrine. The shrine takes temporary care of these babies and organize them for adoption through appropriate agencies. Many of the adoptions have turned out remarkably well.
A sadder case is fetuses of aborted babies, or miscarriage being left in the vicinity of the shrine. Because of the continuing number of these unfortunate incidents, the shrine has dedicated a special place in the ossuary at the back of the convent. Now the souls of these poor unborn babies shares the beautiful garden besides the ossuary with departed Redemptorist brothers and priests who have served in the shrine.
Keeping the family close together is one of the greatest challenges of the family in the 21st century. British sociologist Anthony Giddens observed that the family in the second half of the last century has become a major arena for the struggles between tradition and modernity. The standard family of the first half of the last century—where both parents lived together with their children of the marriage, the mother was a full-time housewife and the father the breadwinner—is now a minority.
Individualization has transformed traditional marriage. Marriage became the project of individual persons. As German Sociologists couple Ulrich Beck and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim explains, “The why, what and how long of marriage are placed entirely in the hands and hearts of those joined in it. From now on there is just one maxim defining what marriage means: the script is the individualization of marriage.” The Becks adds that the couple has become the center of family: “Today the couple, married or unmarried, is at the core of what the family is. The couple came to be at the centre of family life as the economic role of the family dwindled and love, or love plus sexual attraction, became the basis of forming marriage ties.”
This is also the experience of many devotees’ family. Many of devotees’ families are undergoing transition. At the beginning of the novena until about the 70s, the typical family of the devotees is the traditional family where both parents lived together with their children of the marriage, the mother is a full-time housewife and the father is the breadwinner. Beginning in the 80s, the devotees family was strongly influenced by modernity. The modern family was characterized more by attitudes, values interests, and goals directed toward individual performance and achievement. In general, the family of the devotees today is in transition; it displays attributes of both traditional and modern family. In particular, the role of women is changing rapidly. More have joined the labor force. In growing numbers, they are escaping the drudgery of housekeeping.
Pope John Paul II observed the same global changes in the family in 1981: “The family in the modern world, as much as and perhaps more than any other institution, has been beset by the many profound and rapid changes that have affected society and culture.” The family “is the object of numerous forces that seek to destroy it or in some way to deform it.” Twenty years later, the Pope would write about the family in the same vein: “ … this fundamental institution is experiencing a radical and widespread crisis.”
When their family is confronted with great difficulties, devotees run to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Our Mother of Perpetual Help is one of their greatest source of consolation in times of family troubles. Iris & John Monsalve and Family shares their experience in a thanksgiving letter in August 26, 2015,
In the previous years, during one of the most stressful times of our life as a family and as a married couple, we were aided at most times with your maternal love, provision and protection. It was during these times that we were caught in great financial distress due to an investment scam by people personally known to us. It was also the time that our second child was given to us after 5 years, but due to our ongoing circumstances during said period, ours was a difficult pregnancy. But great is your faithfulness and grace, heavenly interventions saw us through those difficult, stressful times. And we take this opportunity to thank you and let these be known to people of similar circumstances for hope and inspiration.
Contemplatio: Looking through the Icon
For years, through the icon, Mary saw and felt the struggles and suffering of the devotees in their family life. In the midst of the crisis and radical transformations that the family of devotees have undergone, the icon served as an anchor that gave them hope and strength. In the icon, they saw Mary as a true mother who invited them to the right path–the path of her son Jesus.
The elements of the icon taught devotees how to live as a family of God. The icon is an image of the new family which Jesus proclaimed during his time on earth. The right hand of Mary points to Jesus as if saying: “Follow him: He is our Redeemer!” All throughout her life, Mary, Our Mother of Perpetual Help, gave everything for the mission of Jesus. In the same way, Mary invites all devotees to choose the way of Jesus in the midst of so many cares and enticements of this world. Mary inspires the devotees through the glory that God has given her, so that despite it is the narrow and unpopular road, devotees may choose the path of Jesus.
The left hand of Mary holds Jesus in a loving and caring way. The left hand of Mary symbolizes the throne of Jesus where Jesus sits. Mary is the seat of Wisdom who is Jesus. Jesus’ hands are turned downward, a symbol of His placing the graces of redemption in her hands.
Through the contemplation of the icon, Mary invited the devotees to strengthen their family life. The icon invited the devotees to contemplate the situation of their family in the light of the new belonging to the family of God. The family that they live in this world is their preparation to the new family of God which goes beyond blood, race, culture and even religion.
Missio: Following Jesus with Mary
The Holy Family is a model for all Christian families: Jesus of Nazareth, his mother, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and his foster father, Saint Joseph. The Holy Family was in many ways like any other family; they also faced many troubles and tribulations. Fr. Gabriel of St. Mary Magdalen enumerates the many difficulties of the holy family:
[The holy Family] … embrace all the tribulations of their never easy life: the discomforts of the sudden flight to Egypt, the uncertainty attendant on settling in a strange country, the fatigues of hard work, the privation of a life of poverty, and later the anguish of losing their Son on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
Certainly, Jesus’ knowledge and wisdom was enhanced because of the formation and guidance Mary and Joseph inculcated in him during his early years. Thus, by the time Jesus was twelve years old, He was able to amaze the scholars in the temple with His wisdom and ability to discuss the Word of God (Luke 2:46–47).
Although, Mary was blessed by God to be the mother of his son Jesus, Mary did not understand everything. An example of this was when the holy family went to Jerusalem for a festival when Jesus was twelve years old. After the festival, Mary and Joseph thought that Jesus was with them as they journey back home but Jesus got separated from his parents. After three days of anxious searching for him, Mary and Joseph found him in the temple engrossed in discussion with the scholars. Mary told him, “Child, why have you treated us like this? Look, your father and I have been searching for you in great anxiety” (Luke 2: 49). But Jesus told them, “Why were you searching for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house? (Luke 2: 50)” Both Mary and Joseph did not understand everything that happened and what Jesus told them. They, however, continued to nurture Jesus with much love. Mary pondered deeply all these things in her heart. “Then He went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was subject to them, but His mother kept all these things in her heart.” (Luke 2:51–52).
When Jesus began his ministry, he preach the good news of God’s kingdom. In God’s kingdom, Jesus will gather new family under God the Father which goes beyond blood, race, and culture. Mary has to give way to the new family that Jesus proclaimed and remained obedient and supportive of the mission of her son despite her lack of understanding. As Pope Benedict XVI states,
Then, when Jesus began his public ministry, [Mary] had to step aside, so that a new family could grow, the family which it was his mission to establish and which would be made up of those who heard his word and kept it (cf. Lk 11:27f).
We find this in the gospel particularly in a scene in the gospel of Mark (Mark 3: 31 – 35). At a time when Jesus was persecuted and falsely accused, his mother and brothers were concerned about his welfare. So they went out to Jesus who was in the country preaching the gospel to the people. Surrounded by a crowd while Jesus was preaching, the word was passed on to Jesus: “Your mother and your brothers are outside asking for you.” Jesus’ response was “Who are my mother and my brothers?”
In a commentary on this gospel scene, prominent American scripture scholar Raymond Brown commented that Jesus’ response raises the issue of who really constitute his family now that the Kingdom of God is being proclaimed. As his natural family stands outside, Jesus looks at those inside and proclaims, “Here are my mother and my brothers. Whoever does the will of God is brother and sister and mother to me.” Jesus’ response to the crowd is consistent with his other words to those wishing to follow him as he continues to proclaim the Kingdom of God:
Truly I tell you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or fields, for my sake and for the sake of the good news, who will not receive a hundredfold now in this age—houses, brothers and sisters, mothers and children, and fields, with persecutions—and in the age to come eternal life (Mark 10: 29 – 30).
This scene where Jesus praised a family of disciples that is obedient to God at the expense of his own natural family, may not incline readers to develop devotion to Mary as many non-Catholics do. Yet, in this scene Jesus subtly highlights the fact that Mary was the first one who obeyed the will of God. She is the model of being a member of the new family of God that Jesus preached. The belongingness to the new family of God is modeled after the fiat of Mary and her life of discipleship in Jesus.
This is what is happening in the shrine; the shrine is the gathering of the new family of God with Mary, Our Mother of Perpetual Help as their model. The thousands of devotees, coming from different families, gathered as one big family in the shrine to hear and live out the word of God. They are the new family of God united in following Jesus, moved by the Spirit, journeying towards the Father despite differences in blood, culture, language, race, color, status and gender.
Call to Action
Devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help can be enriched by learning from the life of the first family–Mary, Joseph and Jesus. What are the challenges of this to our family?
Our devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help can become more productive and meaningful if we begin to proclaim, live and practice our devotion within the family. Instead of praying the novena as individuals, for example, we can pray the novena in the shrine or in our home as a family. We can consecrate the family to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. We have a prayer for consecration to Our Mother of Perpetual Help in the novena:
Immaculate Virgin Mary, * Mother of God and Mother of the Church, * you are also our Mother ever ready to help us. * With hearts full of love for you * we consecrate ourselves to your Immaculate Heart * so that we may be your devoted children. * Obtain for us true sorrow for sins * and fidelity to the promises of our Baptism.
We consecrate our minds and hearts to you * that we always do the Will of our heavenly Father. * We consecrate our lives to you * that we may love God better * and live not for ourselves * but for Christ, your Son * and that we may see Him * and serve Him in others.
By this humble act of consecration, * dear Mother of Perpetual Help, * we pledge to model our lives on you, * the perfect Christian, * so that, consecrated to you in life and in death * we may belong to your Divine Son for all eternity.
The first family at Nazareth have shown us the higher mission of the family. Families are inherently missional—that is, they participate in God’s mission to transform the world. The family participates in God’s mission of building a new family based on living out the will and values of God’s kingdom not because of blood, race, ethnicity, culture or religion. Understanding families this way implies conversion, a change of thinking about the family. Rather than viewing families as a training ground for individual glorification, families are communities of formation for the Kingdom of God in service to the world.
(This article is an excerpt from the book Mary of Baclaran: Our Mother of Perpetual Help and Mission Today by Joey Echano, soon to be published)
 Prayer for the Home, Novena to Our Mother of Perpetual Help, Baclaran, 2016.
“Mary was the temple of God,
not the God of the temple;
hence only he who was at work in the temple
is to be adored.” St. Ambrose
The present Shrine is the third Church that was built in the original land donated to the Redemptorists in 1932.
The first church was a small wooden chapel built in 1932. When the first Redemptorists settled at Baclaran, their main intention for the Baclaran land is to be a mission station for the Tagalog mission. Thus, the plan to build a big shrine for Our Mother of Perpetual Help never crossed their minds.
The second church was built in 1949, a year after the explosion of the novena when the shrine could no longer accommodate the crowds that had increasingly attended the Novenas. Devotion came first before any structures and building. Redemptorists did not have the mentality: “If you build, they will come!”
Just a few months after the second church was built, however, it became obvious that the second church could not still accommodate the growing number of devotees. Thus, beginning in 1950, Redemptorist began the preparations and planning for a third church. Actual construction began in 1953 and finished in 1958. The second Church remained inside while the present shrine was being built and was only removed when the present Church was completed.
Although there were admittedly some prominent donors, Fr. Lew O’leary, Rector of the shrine at that time, stressed that about 75% of the cost of the construction came from small donors. This was done either through weekly collections or through the loose change dropped into the miniature models of the proposed shrine strategically placed near the cashier in the shops and stores of Manila, The caption said: “Ten Cents to Help Build a Shrine.”
This is a big reason why it took six years to build the shrine. Most of the money that came from small donations often ran out requiring construction to stop. Truly it is a church by the people, built mainly not by big and rich benefactors, but by the ordinary people. No wonder they continue to identify so strongly with it.
The architecture of the shrine is modern Romanesque. The architect of Baclaran shrine was the well-known architect, Cesar Concio, Sr. (father-in-law of Charo Santos, Filipino actress and producer), who is credited with a light design for a big space and good natural acoustics. Hechanova describes Concio’s design as “both simple and solemn, large yet intimately prayerful in atmosphere, a ‘populist’ church in the best sense of the word.”
The shrine, finished in 1958, stands at 17.2 m (56.5 ft.) high on the nave and 12.5 m (41 ft.) high on the main aisle. The edifice has a length of 106.7 m (350 ft.), width of 36 m (118 ft.) and a total floor area of 5,069 m2 (54,564 ft2).
Redemptorists ensured that the design and construction of the present shrine would contribute and give justice to the wonderful devotion and the amazing grace that God has wrought in Baclaran through Our Mother of Perpetual Help. The design of the shrine needs to fit with the spirituality of the icon and the devotion. The aesthetic of the shrine was to provide an ambience of prayer and contemplation. The design ought to be a shrine which prays with the people. This is expressed by Natasha Buxton in a thanksgiving letter to Our Mother of Perpetual Help in January 10, 2015,
I finally got the chance to visit Mama Mary in Baclaran, and I knelt down in front of her asking for a miracle. I felt so at peace in her church, I couldn’t help but get all emotional. I left the church feeling content, and decided to leave my trust with her.
Let us examine how the various architectural parts of the shrine enhance and uplift devotees’ prayer and devotion.
The main object of veneration in the shrine is the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help. The original icon enshrined above the main altar came from Germany. Redemptorists brought it to Ireland then to Australia and finally the Philippines in 1906. It bears the Papal arms in the back panelling.
There is no access to reach the icon at the top of the retable. So people touch the tabernacle instead. Indeed, devotees believe that once they touch the tabernacle, they already have touched the icon. In hindsight this is exactly what Our Mother of Perpetual Help wish for every devotee. Mary wishes that all devotees become closer and follow her son.
The area where the center of activity in the shrine takes place is the sanctuary. It is elevated and separated from the nave through a communion rail. The sanctuary is elevated so that the congregation can easily see the different parts of the liturgy that are celebrated efficaciously from the sanctuary.
The most important and dignified element at the sanctuary is the altar, the place where the Eucharistic sacrifice is offered. The High Altar was brought from Italy. It is an elevated big marble free standing altar which enable the priest to walk around the altar to incense it. The altar reminds the devotees that the Eucharist is still the central sacrament and celebration of the shrine.
Just like Mary Our Mother of Perpetual Help who expressed her fiat: “Let it be done according to your Word,” the shrine has always emphasized that true devotion is lived and practiced according to the Word of God. In the same spirit, the novena is at the service of the Eucharist.
The baldachin is the beautiful canopy of four columns that sits over the altar. It also provides a beautiful covering for the icon. Its columns and capitals are made of giallo oro and Bottecino marbles. The gracefully curving altar rails under the baldachin are made of white Carrara marble.
The retable (in Spanish, retablo) is the large altarpiece behind the altar. It is a beautiful symmetrical work of art. It incorporates the tabernacle and serves as a backdrop for the icon. The retable contains beautiful bronze sculptures of eight pairs of wheat stalks intertwining with each other. Their point of intersection is the tabernacle and the crucifix. Four doves representing the Holy Spirit surround the crucifix. A bronze sculpture of vine and fruit grapes floats above it. The wheat and grapes symbolize the bread, and wine of the Eucharist. The wheat and the grapes are also emblematic of abundance of God’s grace.
Ian Lang, commented on the retable in June 9, 2017,
This was my first visit on this church and I really had a great and solemn experience. I will never forget the retablo of our great Ina ng Laging Saklolo against its magnificent ceiling architecture. Thanks to those who contributed in beautifying the sanctuary of pilgrims.
The very center of the retable is the tabernacle. The tabernacle is made of wood designed as a box-like vessel for the exclusive reservation of the consecrated Eucharist. It is positioned at the center of retable in such a way that people could touch both the front and back of the tabernacle. Every Wednesday after all the liturgical services in the evening, people form a line to touch the tabernacle while silently praying their faces are looking upwards towards Our Mother of Perpetual Help in the icon above and beyond their reach.
The pulpit at the left side of the sanctuary is a raised platform from which the liturgical readings are read and where preachers preach their homilies. There is a short stairs leading to it. The stairs and pulpit is crafted in wood as a beautiful work of art. The pulpit serves as the altar of the Word. It is located closer to the main congregation in the nave, to ensure the preacher can be seen and heard by all the congregation.
Fr. Maguire describes how the pulpit was built:
The pulpit was built by a Redemptorist Brother—Bro. Leo. It was designed by the architect of the church but was not built for many years after the Church was constructed. It was a complicated design and so difficult to build that a number of carpenters surrendered and admitted that they could not follow the plan. Bro. Leo brought an old carpenter from Lipa called Alf who had worked with him for many years in the Lipa Monastery and together they built the pulpit. Bro. Leo was a carpenter before becoming a Redemptorist. Alf never had a chance to receive formal education but had natural skills not taught in schools.
The main body and the biggest part of the shrine is the nave. The nave extends from the main door to the place where the choir is. It is the place for the devotees and lay faithful. This is where they stand, sit, gather, pray and participate in the sacred celebrations. Nave comes from the Latin word navis, signifying a ship, the same word from which we derived the words “navy” and “naval.” The ship was the favorite symbol of the Church in primitive times. From the nave, the faithful are able to see the Priest, the Deacon, and the readers and with the aid of a good sound system, hear them without difficulty.
The most common element of the nave are the pews and their kneelers. The pews are arranged in a unidirectional manner—one behind the next, facing the sanctuary of the church. There are 108 pews in the shrine which can seat 15 to 20 adults comfortably. This gives an actual seating capacity of 2000. More people, however are standing inside and outside the shrine during masses and novena, estimated at more or less 8000 people.
Another important element in the nave is the confessional. It is crafted in such a way that it fits in with the architecture of the shrine as well as being an obvious sign of the Sacrament of Reconciliation. There are four confessionals placed at the sides of the shrine. In 2016, a separate reconciliation room was constructed near the candle chapel. This is a special reconciliation room where those going to confession can either choose between face to face confession or confession through a latticed opening for the penitents to speak through and a step on which they could kneel.
The choir is the place set aside for those members of the congregation who are specially trained to lead the sung portion of the liturgy. The choir is located at the right side of the sanctuary closer to the nave. The shrine has a rear gallery or “choir loft” but was never actually used since it is too far from the assembly and the presider. The choir is not visible to the rest of the congregation since the choir is primarily perceived audibly— we hear them not see them. They are present at Holy Mass as worshippers, not as performers.
The ceiling of the shrine is designed primarily for acoustic and aesthetic purposes. But the design of the ceiling also tells of another important symbol. The design is patterned on two hands joined together as in the posture of prayer. This evokes the spiritual ambiance that the shrine prays with the people. As the thousands of devotees prays the novena, the shrine also prays with them just as Mary Our Mother of Perpetual Help in the icon prays with them.
The narthex is the part of the shrine consisting of the entrance or lobby area, located at the west end of the nave, opposite the church’s main altar. The narthex is where the priest, the lectors, ushers, altar boys and girls, lay communion ministers and mother butler guilds assemble before the beginning of the liturgy. It is also the place where the priest wear the liturgical vestments for the liturgy. It is also the place where the priest and lay ministers greet the people as they enter and exit the shrine.
At the entrance of the shrine above the main door, devotees are greeted by a beautiful Rose Window. It is a large circular window above the central entrance to the church. The segments of stained glass that radiate out from its center are likened to the unfolding petals of a full-blown rose. Rose Windows in shrines are dedicated to Mary as the Mother of Jesus. At the center of the Rose Window is a star which recalls Mary as Star of the Sea, our guide in the midst of darkness.
Front Porch or Patio
The front porch of the shrine is a natural place for people to gather after or before the mass. It is popular place for devotees where they can sit, talk, and relax. It is also used as a meeting place by the devotees. Sometimes the patio becomes the venue for outdoor special events like concerts, plays, programs and other cultural celebrations.
Color of the Shrine
Yellow cream is the overriding color of the shrine which comes close to the golden background of the Icon. Gold in the icon evokes the life of joy and peace in eternity with God which we are all destined to be at the end of time.
The shrine has a separate chapel for lighting candles. It is the second most popular place next to the shrine where people light candles and pray silently and solemnly. Many stay still lengthily transfixed at the candles praying for God’s light and trying to contemplate their lives in God’s light when they have come out of the darkness of their lives.
Jan Castillo commenting on the Facebook page of the shrine December 3, 2015, said, “An awesome place to pray, relax and chill. Must visit!!! Bring the whole family.” Alvin Guerrero also commenting on the Facebook page of the shrine in August 12, 2016 said, “Quiet and really clean, you can pray solemnly.” Jomar Gabayeron also commented, “A very solemn and sacred church. Has a big space in my heart, plays a big role in my life.” Joe Conda, commenting in May 1, 2017, said: “For me Baclaran church is one of my favourite place to go … in this place I can release all my worries in life, I can talk to God and give thanks for all the blessings that he gave me every day.” Pat Elvas, commented on July 30, 2015, “A great haven for peace, reflection and time for God, Jesus and His Mother. Our Mother of Perpetual Help, will always be a mother to us.”
The original plan of the present shrine included a bell tower. This was cancelled, however, due to the church’s proximity to the airport. After 60 years, this plan was realized. In 2015, a Carillon belfry was built near the Western entrance of the Shrine on Roxas Blvd. On September 8 of the same year, Archbishop of Manila Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle blessed the newly-built belfry. There are 24 bells in this tower, all imported from Austria. There are also four mosaic panels of Our Lady of Perpetual Help on each side of the belfry. The carillon bells are automatically programmed to ring 15 minutes before every Mass or Novena service. It also hosts the Sinirangan coffee shop at its base.
Wall Art at the Shrine’s Park
At the back of the candle chapel there is a large mosaic celebrating the 150th jubilee of the icon. It portrays the journey of the icon from Crete to Baclaran interspersed with scenes of devotees at the shrine and in the mission in the barrios.
At the south wall of the shrine’s compound is a mural of mixed art—mosaic, sculpture, paintings, depicting the history of the Filipino people interspersed with motifs and themes from Laudato Si, Pope Francis’ encyclical on the care for creation. The wall art is suitably augmented by a beautiful landscape of flowers and greens. It is one of the largest mosaic mural of all churches in the Philippines with a height of eight feet and a length of seven hundred feet. The whole project began in mid-2015 and finished in 2017. The wall art was blessed in December 2017.
There are plans to build a mural on the north wall of the shrine’s compound in the future. The mural will also be a mixed art of mosaic, sculpture, painting depicting the different parts of the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help intersperse with the life of Mary in the Bible.
These wall art and landscape provide an added space for devotees to relax, pray and contemplate on the icon. Carmelotez, commenting on the park outside of the shrine on May 22, 2017: “It’s really nice to stay for relaxing… Its ambiance relieves my weariness, for me this is the best place to relax.”
Truly the shrine’s architecture and ambiance inside and outside enhances the encounter between the devotees and God and Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Indeed, the shrine serves as an icon herself, a window to the eternal and the sacred.
(This article is an excerpt from the book Mary of Baclaran: Our Mother of Perpetual Help and Mission Today by Joey Echano, soon to be published)
Know that the tenderness of Mary never lets you down. And holding onto her mantle and with the power that cones from Jesus’ love on the cross, let us move forward and walk together as brothers and sisters in the Lord.
– Pope Francis, homily during the Mass in Tacloban, Jan. 17, 2015
In a letter to Fr. O’Leary dated February 7, 1958, the late Archbishop Jose Ma. Cuenco of Jaro joyfully told Fr. Lew O’ Leary, the rector of the shrine, how he endorsed his petition to make the Baclaran Shrine as a National Shrine for the following reasons.
Devotion to Our Lady of Perpetual Succour has become national in the Philippines, as in many parishes the novena to the Perpetual Succour is held. That in Baclaran every Wednesday about 70,000 come to the Novena of Perpetual Succour. This number is unique in the world. That the new church is the longest in the Philippines. That the Redemptorist Fathers are the best promoters and propagandists of devotion to Our Lady.
After his short speech, the Bishops present approved Fr. O’Leary’s petition unanimously for the honor and glory of the Blessed Virgin. On March 5th, 1958, the good news that the Church of Our Mother of Perpetual Help had been made the National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help was announced at all Masses and Novenas. This official declaration gave confirmation about the sacredness of the shrine and the many graces that the thousands of devotees have received through the prayers of OMPH. This further attracted existing and new devotees to flock to the shrine.
The declaration of Baclaran as a National Shrine is a recognition that the love affair between the Filipino people and Our Mother of Perpetual Help in Baclaran has now become a national affair. This love affair is no longer confined within the shrine but is widespread all throughout the nation. The novena to Our Mother of Perpetual Help is recited in every parish every Wednesday throughout the country. Even very popular shrines such as Our Lady Manaoag, the Quiapo Church of the Nazareno, and the Sto Nino in Cebu have perpetual novena to the Mother of Perpetual Help. Seminaries all over the country also hold perpetual novena. Filipino workers and migrants brought the icon and prayed the novena in almost every country of the globe.
The icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help will no longer just be in the shrine. The icon will grace many humble nipa huts in the countryside, shanties in the slums and mansions in posh villages of the cities. It will be displayed in public vehicles, buses or jeepneys, in schools, in halls, seminaries and even in malls. Numerous hospitals, schools and universities, cooperatives, and organizations will be dedicated and named after Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Fr. Amado Picardal recounts how as a political prisoner during Martial Law years in the 1970s, he saw the image of the Mother of Perpetual Help tattooed on a prisoner’s back that someone jokingly asked him to take off his shirt so that the prisoners can hold a novena. The spread of the devotion all over the land was not
just the work of the Redemptorists but of the people and the local church. The devotees have become co-missionaries in making known OMPH all over the nation.
Many parishes throughout the country will be named after OMPH. In fact, there are fifty-four parishes in the Philippines dedicated to the Mother of Perpetual Help. Below is the list of parishes under the Dedicated to Our Mother of Perpetual Help (59). OMPH – Our Mother of Perpetual Help, OLPH – Our Lady of Perpetual Help, ILS – Ina ng Laging Saklolo, NSPS – Nuestra Senora Perpetu Sucorso)
Baclaran as a national shrine has been visited by all kinds of people–movie stars, politicians, prostitutes, rich and poor, famous and infamous, old and young. The shrine truly belongs to the Filipino people of every class and kind.
It has become not just a sacred or spiritual center but also a cultural capital. The Baclaran phenomenon had gone beyond the religious experience; it has permeated the social, economic, and cultural fabric of the country. The icon of OMPH is not just a religious icon but has become a collective representation of Philippine society.
A cultural expression of Baclaran as a national cultural heritage are the films that was made about the devotion in Baclaran as early as its inception. The earliest recorded film was Awa ng Birhen sa Baclaran (Mercy of the Virgin of Baclaran), in 1952. It stars Ramon D’Salva, Eddie del Mar, Arsenia Francisco. The second earliest recorded movie on the phenomenon is Mother Dearest in 1960. The movie is composed of seven stories contained in letters received by the Mother of Perpetual Help Shrine at Baclaran. The titles of the seven stories are: ‘The Innocent’, ‘The Tramp’, ‘The Pickpocket’, ‘The Hostess’, ‘The Sinner’, ‘The Rebel’, and ‘The Novice’. It was written by Ben Arguelles and screenplay by Ben Feleo. The movie stars: Van De Leon, Lilibeth Vera-Perez, and Nenita Jana.
In the 1979 in the dramatic film Ina Ka ng Anak Mo (You are the Mother of your child), starring Nora Aunor, the church appears in the opening scene. The church also appears in the 1995 film Alfredo Lim: Batas ng Maynila (Alfredo Lim: Law of Manila) starring Eddie Garcia. The church’s candle chapel made an appearance in the 2015 film You’re Still The One starring Maja Salvador, Dennis Trillo, Ellen Adarna and Richard Yap.
The Baclaran shrine is also a favorite venue of TV stations for quick interviews and features during significant national events whether civic or religious events. The church was also featured in the American Reality Competition Program The Amazing Race Season 25 in 2014.
In 2015, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines began the process of including Baclaran shrine in the heritage listing. This was made into a proposal and was approved during a hearing in 2015 which I attended in the City Hall of Paranaque. Baclaran is now officially a national heritage. It is a testament to the Filipino’s profound love for Mary.
This recognition, however, comes with a responsibility. As a national heritage, the façade and architecture of the shrine and the original convent can no longer be changed. As a heritage listing, the shrine needs to provide more facilities for pilgrims and tourists, like spaces for seating, drinking and eating. It also needs to organize tours and provide information materials for tourist and pilgrims. A museum showing the rich and significant events of the past and some valuable symbols and artefacts of the shrine will be an important emblem of Baclaran as a national heritage.
(This article is an excerpt from the book Mary of Baclaran: Our Mother of Perpetual Help and Mission Today by Joey Echano, soon to be published)
Mary is the prototype of the hope of grace for humankind as a whole.
Many times as I walk around the shrine after the services at night, I could see devotees deep in prayer and silence. What catches most intensely my attention is the number of people who are crying, pouring their hearts out to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. For many devotees, the shrine has become a channel for pouring out their sorrows and woes, an outlet for catharsis, if you will. They see the shrine as a very important channel where they could pour out their sufferings and agonies and turn to the Lord and Mary which in many cases is their only hope. Rik Ali Mandi describes this in a thanksgiving letter written on September 23, 2014:
Here in this shrine, I felt peace in my heart. Here in this shrine, I learned to pour out my frustrations and pains in life. Here in this shrine, I left behind all the things that gave me sadness, burdens and woes. Thus, I give thanks wholeheartedly to you Our Mother of Perpetual Help for the times that you listened to my petitions and afflictions in life, and for giving light to the questions of my life. You taught me the right solutions to the problems I bring to you, guided me towards the right decisions and most of all made me feel that you love me and lead me to the right path in life. Now, as I continue my journey in life, I have complete trust that you will always guide me through my loneliness towards the twilight of my life … I give thanks to you Our Mother of Perpetual Help, many, many thanks.
Through the years, our country has gone through a lot of crisis. Despite the continuous crisis, devotees flock to Baclaran. There is no abatement in attendance, the devotion has not waned one bit. Someone in the community commented that the more our country is plunged into crisis the more people flock to Baclaran. Indeed, despite the series of crises, Filipinos in their distinctive creativity and resilience in dealing with crisis, can still afford to smile and celebrate. Filipinos’ resilience is deeply rooted in their faith and devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. This is what Nica Realuyo expressed in her thanksgiving letter on February 4, 2015,
6 years ago after graduating in education degree in our province, I mustered enough courage to go to Manila in order to fulfil my dream to become a flight attendant … I tried several times to apply and several times I failed the pre-screening. I could no longer count from my fingers how many times I was disappointed and thought of giving up and forget all about my dream. In those moments, which I could not accept, I had feelings of resentment for God. I had so many questions. Until one day, I thought of going to Baclaran to pray for many things about my life including my dream. After many years of waiting and several disappointments and rejections, I was accepted by an airline from Middle East … What I have gone through is a witness to the truth that through our persistence and prayer our dreams will be realized … God is good! God bless us all!
Shrine as Icon of Hope
Many devotees see the shrine as a symbol of faith and hope. As the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, Third Asian Congress on Pilgrimages and Shrines declares, “In an era overwhelmed by divisions, acts of violence and natural calamities, pilgrimages and shrines are places of hope which comes from the encounter with God.” In the midst of the many crises and evils that seem to prevail in our times, the shrine has always proclaimed to the devotees to not surrender to apathy and despair. The Redemptorist in their preaching tried to give an account of the hope that they lived and experienced: “Always be ready to make a defense to anyone who asks for the reason for the hope that is in you” (I Peter 3:15). In the maiden issue of the shrine’s newsletter, The Icon, in October 2003, I wrote about the mission of the shrine,
In the midst of hopelessness, we yearn to be signs of hope; in the midst of gnawing pessimism we want to bring the good news of Jesus; in the midst of a culture that breeds indifference and individualism, we strive to promote dialogue and solidarity especially with the marginalized and most abandoned. We believe that our devotion to our Mother of Perpetual Help should lead us to a radical renewal of ourselves so we can truly become genuine agents of transformation in church and society.
In the midst of the suffering and crisis, people come to this church to be inspired and renewed to face their daily struggles. The devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help gives hope to thousands of devotees to not just surrender to the predicament they find themselves in their current situation. As the devotees pour out their sorrows in the shrine, Mary Our Mother of Perpetual Help gives them the hope and strength to continue their struggles and aspirations in the midst of life’s trials and difficulties. Arnel Villena writes in a thanksgiving letter on July 6, 2015,
During those times when I was extremely down, I felt that you always gave me hope and reason to be positive about life. The added strength and new kidney that you attached to my body is a most beautiful sign of your guidance upon me. I will always take care of this. The very good job I have now, is the source of our daily needs, and also a big blessing from you. In addition, you let me experience other miracles. Mother, thank you. I will not forget this.
The Poor as Bearers of Hope
Poverty and hope goes hand and hand in the shrine. Mary under the title of Ina ng Laging Saklolo (Our Mother of Perpetual Help) appeals to many devotees because many of them are helpless and pushed to the limit, in Tagalog—“kapit sa patalim!” (gripping the knife’s edge). When the system is rigged and stacked against their favor, the plea of many devotees is, help me, saklolo! When nothing works for them—the system, the government, politicians, and even the church, they look inward and seek God and Mary’s intervention. Genesis Toledo Lustre demonstrates this plea for help as she writes,
I’ve been to Baclaran church many times especially when I am losing hope in life, I prayed while crying, I couldn’t help myself from crying whenever I come to this church. However, I think I need someone to talk to who is from the Church who can give me advice or someone who will just listen to my story and my questions. I really need guidance, especially now that I am pregnant. Please ..
Most devotees are poor just barely getting by, surviving on a day to day existence, as we say in Tagalog, isang kahig, isang tuka, (one scratch, one peck) which means hand-to-mouth existence. Many who flock to the shrine are hungry, thirsty, alienated, depressed, excluded, abandoned and deprived in multiple ways and variety of experiences. The despair that many devotees suffer, is articulated by Cha in her thanksgiving letter on April 29, 2015,
[E]very time I pray to you and to Jesus to help me understand the things that would prevent me from doing the evil thing that I always thought—taking my own life because of the many financial problems—you always let me see how lucky I am because I have a family that I need to love and care for. My heart breaks when I see the innocent faces of my little children—what will happen to them if I am gone, if I surrender. I pray that you would once again open your heart to me. For the last time, I ask you that you would hear my plea to drive away my financial problem. I pray that you would give me another opportunity to rise up and begin anew … as a mother.
Most of the devotees who flock to Our Mother of Perpetual Help realize how destitute they are whether spiritual or material. Ironically, it is this poverty that opens their hearts to reach out to God and to Mary and not lose hope. The devotees in their poverty find hope despite the hopelessness they experienced in life. Indeed, one cannot truly experience God’s perpetual help through Our Mother of Perpetual Help unless one becomes poor. They embody Jesus’ first beatitude: “Blessed are the poor in spirit” (Matthew 5: 2).
Finding Hope in Fellow Devotees
The sick, unemployed, frustrated, lost, loveless, and suffering—destitute as they are, spiritually or materially, they open their hearts to reach out to God and to fellow men and women in despair. They find hope from fellow hopeless devotee. When one hear the thousands sing and pray the novena in unison one cannot help but experience courage and hope which provide the strength to go on amidst the struggles in life.
This experience of praying the novena as giving hope to thousand of devotees is affirmed by Pope Benedict XVI in his encyclical, Spe Salvi (Saved in Hope). In the encyclical Benedict XVI asks: “How can Christians learn, articulate and exercise this hope in Christ?” To this Benedict responds: “A first essential setting for learning hope is prayer.” When no one listens to me anymore, God still listens to me. When I can no longer talk to anyone or call upon anyone, I can always talk to God.” Prayer can never be merely individual or self-preoccupied; genuine prayer is that which turns us toward others, in solidarity with our neighbor and communion in the Church as Benedict further adds:
Hope in a Christian sense is always hope for others as well. It is an active hope, in which we struggle to prevent things moving towards the “perverse end”. It is an active hope also in the sense that we keep the world open to God. Only in this way does it continue to be a truly human hope.
Many devotees have suffered from many forms captivity that have subjugated them for so long. Thus, the plea of the thousands of devotees to Inay ng Laging Saklolo is not just a cry for their needs but is also a cry for liberation. In whatever state of captivity they find themselves, their devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help give them hope and strength not to surrender and continue to struggle.
Strengthened by hope, devotees not only pray for what they want, but aim to be set free towards the life they honestly hope to attain. In this spirit, hope becomes an active disposition–never surrendering to apathy and indifference. Their hope, directed by Our Mother of Perpetual Help towards the Good News of Jesus Christ, is the refusal to accept the status quo. It is challenging present systems and the wider societal structures in actively bringing about new attitudes and alternative order according to Jesus’ vision of the Kingdom.
The Dutch theologian Edward Schillebeeckx states that the most radical form of Christian hope is born in negativity, “amid the experiences of negativity, darkness, and injustice in which human beings cry out in protest: ‘This cannot go on!’” Hope entails challenging the prevailing values, attitudes, structures and systems that for so long a time preserved captivity and dependence. As Anthony Kelly declares, “hope refuses to see the ultimate meaning of life as simply more of the same.” That is why hope is always bold, daring and defiant. Kelly adds, “Genuine hope has no use for idols.” Experiencing hope amidst their despair and hopelessness through their devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help, devotees learned to proclaim the gospel as a counter text to the idols of the world.
Thus, the experience of pouring out of one’s sorrows for many devotees is not just cathartic but also empowering. Fr. Victorino Cueto asserts that through their devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help in the shrine, devotees are afforded “the empowered experience … to put a language into his/her predicament. S/He is able to speak and give voice to his/her experience. A devotee is provided the space to articulate his/her joys and pain, hopes and suffering, desires and dreams.” In a thanksgiving letter written on August 27, 2014, Michelle Mulingbayan shares this kind of experience in the shrine:
I started coming to you last February 2014 because of a big problem that I was going through during those times with the father of my child. It has been my practise that whenever I experience that kind of feeling, I go to mass or visit a nearby church in order to pour out my sorrows, ask for help and guidance in order to lighten the pain I am experiencing … Almost every night I could not stop crying because of so the unbearable pain. For nine Wednesdays, I did not surrender, and in those times, I gradually felt peace in my heart and mind. Every time I pray the novena, I feel the warmth of your acceptance and helping hand in order that I might overcome this trial in my life.
A Whole New World: Hope Beyond this World
The hope that the devotees deeply experienced in the shrine is not just optimism or a mirage. As St. Paul said, “hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us” (Romans 5: 5).
Looking through the icon, the devotees are led to see an “it-could-be-otherwise” world. Our Mother of Perpetual Help invites the devotees to see behind and beyond their world—with all its sufferings, hardships, hopelessness, injustice, violence, enslavements – in anticipation of a possible world full of possibilities. The icons are an agency of hope, a hope which defies even the most destructive force in our world today that in the midst of the violence, chaos, madness, misery of our lives here on earth, there is a “beyond-this-world” that is totally opposite our world today (magnificat) already growing but will reached its fullest potential through the most creative and dynamic power and grace of God in the end.
As the document, The Shrine: Memory, Presence and Prophecy of the Living God proclaims, “The shrine … is a sign of that greater hope that points to the final and definitive destination, where each individual will be fully human, respected and fulfilled according to the righteousness of God.”Amid life’s difficulties, the shrine, an edifice of stone, points to the homeland glimpsed from afar but not yet attained, anticipation of which, in faith and hope, sustains Christ’s disciples on their pilgrim way. The shrine is set as a prophecy of God’s tomorrow in the today of the present world. Every time the community of the faithful gathers together in the shrine, it does so to remind itself of that other shrine, the future city, the dwelling of God, which we wish to begin building already in this world and which we cannot help but desire, filled with hope, conscious of our limitations, striving to prepare as best we can the coming of the Kingdom. 
In this spirit, the prayer that the people pray—novena and personal prayers—becomes not just supplication but aspiration. Their prayer serves as a narrative and metaphor, expressions of aspirations of the longed for reality, the desire for new world. Through their devotion, devotees are invited in hope to see beyond the present age. Our Mother of Perpetual Help invites the devotee to be a “hoper,” who is impatient with evil and death in this present age.
God will make all things new. He is known now in his promises. Hope is what gives us confidence in the possibility that those things which are now so destructive of human well-being will be overcome. Hope speaks to a world vividly aware of the “not yet” dimensions of human and social existence, and of the fact that hope at its human level is of the stuff of meaningful existence. It is hope that changes us, hope that changes the world.
Our Mother of Perpetual Help – Mother of Hope
In the shrine, the poor found Mary when they needed to find a voice, an outlet, an ally. When they experience Our Mother of Perpetual Help as kakampi (ally), they no longer feel alone. Our Mother of Perpetual Help becomes a symbol of hope and solace to thousands of desperate devotees who come day and night to the shrine. Our Mother of Perpetual Help becomes a mother of hope.
The life of Mary is hope personified. Mary lived hope because she represented the poor of Yahweh and proclaimed the victory of the Lord against worldly power and domination. Lumen Gentium concludes by calling Mary a sign of hope and comfort for God’s pilgrim people. Mary is the prototype of the hope of grace for humankind as a whole. Mary embodies the ‘elect Israel’ of whom Paul speaks – glorified, justified, called, predestined. Maria Rina Geronimo describes how Our Mother of Perpetual Help is mother of hope,
The last time that I wrote you, my mind was entirely confused, losing hope and crying. Thank you very much Mama Mary for leading me here in your home during those times when I was truly down … During those moments when my self-esteem was so low, you did not abandon me. Thank you very much Mama Mary because you opened your home to a sinner like me. I am not a prayerful person but because of the things that happened to me, I learned to go to mass and pray. I know Mama Mary that this is one of the ways that you can open my mind and heart and once again become close to you … Take care of me Mama Mary and grant me strength and peace of mind so I can serve the sick. Thank you very much for everything Mama Mary for your help and mercy.
Mary as mother of hope, however, draws devotees ultimately not to herself but to her son Jesus Christ. Pope Benedict calls Mary as star of hope who leads us to the true light–Jesus Christ.
Life is like a voyage on the sea of history, often dark and stormy, a voyage in which we watch for the stars that indicate the route. The true stars of our life are the people who have lived good lives. They are lights of hope. Certainly, Jesus Christ is the true light, the sun that has risen above all the shadows of history. But to reach him we also need lights close by—people who shine with his light and so guide us along our way. Who more than Mary could be a star of hope for us? With her “yes” she opened the door of our world to God himself; she became the living Ark of the Covenant, in whom God took flesh, became one of us, and pitched his tent among us (cf. Jn 1:14).
The life of Jesus is the hope of the poor, desperate, helpless and abandoned. We can only experience true hope through the fullness of life that Jesus gave us, as St. Paul wrote, “May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that you may abound in hope by the power of the holy Spirit.” (Romans 15:13).
Hail, holy Queen, Mother of mercy, hail, our life, our sweetness and our hope.
Many times, Baclaran has been called a shrine of miracles. Many flock to Baclaran because they believe it as a sacred place imbued with special spiritual powers where miracles happen. Kevin Angelo James Francisco wrote on February 14, 2018, “The place where miracles happen! I love you Blessed Mother!” Edwin De Veyra, also wrote on October 11, 2017, “There will be a big miracle in our lives if we go to Baclaran church.” Nelen R. T. Herrera testifies that Baclaran is a shrine of miracles in a thanksgiving letter in November 4, 2017, ·
There were many miraculous answers to my petitions to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Healings, business deals, strength guidance and love. And, twice, I witnessed, people presumably possessed by evil spirits, who became very uneasy and their illnesses seem to surface. Maybe, the power of the place caused them to be uneasy. Baclaran Church magnifies God’s presence and love for us through various and countless answered prayers. Loving Mother, pray for us!
Many hope and believe that a miracle can also happen to them when they come to Baclaran shrine: Whether to be healed or to travel abroad or get a job or pass the board exams or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit. Jessa Llano writes on Mar 19, 2017 thanking Our Mother of Perpetual Help for a miracle she received,
There is so much joy and happiness inside my heart the day I received a miracle from God. All my fears are gone and eventually fade away. I believe in the miracles of God. And I am more than thankful to you, for always helping me and showing me the right path. As a student, I will never ever forget all the graces I received. Thank you for interceding for me to your divine son Jesus. I will not stop praising you forever till the rest of my life … I love you Mama Mary.
The identification of the shrine as a shrine of miracles began shortly after the introduction of the novena in 1948. The first report of a “miracle” mentioned by the Redemptorist community in their chronicles was in June 20, 1949: “Many favors were granted to her devotees during the Novena. The most striking being, the sudden cure of a case of tetanus and the conversion of another to the true faith.”
There is no official formal declaration from the official Church that the shrine is a shrine of miracles. Not that the shrine need any official declaration nor the devotees demand one. The promise of miracles combined with the conviction that they can easily bring to God whatever needs they have through Mary’s intercession, attract many devotees. Indeed, devotees flock to shrine because they believe that their petitions will reach God through Mary’s intercession. As the American Mariologist Fr. Johann G. Roten states, “There is no sense in prayer, meditation and devotion, if the faithful individual does not have some assurance or moral certitude that his or her act of religion does, in fact, reach the intended addressee.”
There has been no report, however, of any extraordinary phenomena or miraculous happenings in Baclaran like apparitions, host with blood, Mary crying in tears of blood, and other supernatural events. There is also no legend or myth that has become part of the oral tradition of the shrine. The only time that the Baclaran phenomenon was associated with an external supernatural activity was during the time of the reported phenomenon of the showers of petals in Lipa in 1948. When the novena exploded in Baclaran in 1948, it was also the time when the reported showers of petals occurred in Lipa. Fr. Louie Hechanova narrates that during the time, “With the news of the shower of roses in the Carmel of Lipa all over the papers then, ‘a journalist happened to get curious and asked a sacristan in Baclaran what he was looking for.’ ‘Rose petals,’ the sacristan answered. ‘Next day, the daily bulletin reported that petals had fallen in Baclaran!’ This promoted the idea that miracles also occur in Baclaran and consequently, attracted more people to flock to Baclaran.
This reminds me of a widely acclaimed Filipino film, Himala (Miracle) which stars Nora Aunor, Filipina superstar during the 70s and 80s. The movie tells the story of Cupang, a poor and sleepy town in Northern Philippines which suddenly came to life after a reported apparition of the Blessed Virgin to a poor girl named Elsa (Nora Aunor). This drew large numbers of pilgrims to the once barren town boosted by the successful faith healing of Elsa. Soon business people, politicians, media and other people with interest took advantage of the phenomenon. Aghast at all these developments, Elsa near the end of the film, steps on the stage and talks into a microphone in front of thousands of devotees and pilgrims who have eagerly awaited her address. She proclaims: “Walang himala, ang himala ay nasa puso ng tao, nasa puso nating lahat. Tayo ang gumagawa ng himala, tayo ang gumagawa ng mga sumpa at ng mga diyos!” (There are no miracles. It is all inside us… We make miracles ourselves… We pronounce the curse… We create the gods!).
American Professor of Hispanic Studies Frank Graziano defines a miracle in popular devotion as
one that exceeds not the laws of nature but rather the real possibilities of a devotee, which are frequently very limited by people’s low educational level, by poor medical and sanitary conditions because of structural poverty … and by a lack of savings to respond to unforeseen situations.
Indeed, most miracles in Baclaran are the small miracles and internal transformation that happened to the devotees; nothing of the external extraordinary kind. Like the thanksgiving letter of Gabrielle Mindy Uy dated November 3, 2014, where she gave thanks to OMPH for granting an almost impossible favour that she had prayed for a long time.
Thank you very much because you answered what I have been praying for a long time. It seemed almost impossible, but the person I love most came back to me. You answered my prayer and you continue to fulfil what I have asked for. Thank you very much Mama Mary, and may you continue to help those who ask for your help.
In hindsight, there is no need in Baclaran for one visionary or select few recipients of some extraordinary phenomenon. There is no need for an apparition to keep people coming to Baclaran. The transformation of Baclaran into a booming town and the transformation of the devotees are themselves the biggest miracles. The thousands of devotees are themselves the witnesses to the graces and presence of God through Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Like Mylene S. Obed who wrote a thanksgiving letter to Our Mother of Perpetual Help:
Our Mother of Perpetual Help hears even the most silent prayers of our hearts… After months of continuous novenas and devotion, I was blessed with a child, who is now a young lady, and we now go together to Baclaran to show our gratitude to this answered prayer.
Marvin Maderas also wrote, “Thru your miraculousintervention we are united once again as a family. Thank you so much Mama Mary for your blessings (my italics).”
Thanksgiving Letters: Testimonies of Miracles?
A major reason why the shrine is called a shrine of miracles is because of the letters of thanksgiving. Many of the testimonials about the miracles in Baclaran are narrated by the devotees through letters of thanksgiving. Jas Aquino, for example, narrates the miracle he received through a thanksgiving letter in September 3, 2015,
Last time I found myself writing here when I was in the most deep and lonely situation. I find comfort in writing and talking to you. I have undergone a difficult time financially and with your help and through your intercession a miraculous help came to me in my darkest hour. I was approved for my loan at the office. I was able to pay some of my debts and lessen them. I was able to pay for my youngest brother’s tuition and bought him a uniform, because I haven’t paid it for a long time and I just asked for extension to pay … Because of our situation there are times when we don’t have food on the table over the past few months, now we can eat and my kids as well. Thank you for always hearing our prayers. Through your intercession Mother of Perpetual help our prayers is being answered.
Ever since the novena began in the shrine, the Redemptorists have encouraged the devotees to write letters of petitions or thanksgiving to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Devotees can drop these letters to several boxes marked separately for letters of petition and letters of thanksgiving. They are located in conspicuous places in the shrine. Today, devotees can also send their letters of petitions and thanksgiving through the official website of the shrine. This is highly advantageous for OFWs who cannot physically go to the shrine to drop their letters. Indeed, most of the letters received online comes from OFWs. Ayla Joy, an OFW writing on July 12, 2016, expresses her joy of being able to send letter to Our Mother of Perpetual Help from abroad,
I really wanted to send letter to our Blessed Virgin even though I am far away because I know she is the reason for the many blessings that I have received in my life today. All that I asked from her was fulfilled. All these blessings I owe to her son Jesus and to the Blessed Virgin. Thank you very much that there is this kind of way for OFW’s, despite that they are far away, they can be able to write their thanksgiving and petitions to our Blessed Virgin.
Every Tuesday of every week throughout the year, the Baclaran Redemptorist community come together to count the number of petition letters and read the letters of thanksgiving received during the past week. Reading through the letters of thanksgiving every week, I can just admire the deep and genuine faith of the devotees. It gives profound inspiration to my own devotion and faith. After reading all the thanksgiving letters, the community chooses the best ones.
All letters are read except for the letters of petitions. The letters of petitions are not read simply because of the sheer number of petition letters received. Reading all the letters of petitions would take almost the whole week.
The selected letters are read by the commentator during the novena and masses at the shrine the following day, Wednesday. The commentator also announces the total number of letters of petitions and thanksgiving received. The preacher sometimes uses the selected letter as a launching pad for his homily.
The letters of petitions that the shrine have received throughout these years ever since the beginning of the novena can attest to the various needs that the devotees bring to Our Mother of Perpetual Help along with their trust and confidence in her loving care. On the other hand, the letters of thanksgiving that the shrine have received from the devotees can attest to the many favors that the devotees have received. The letters of thanksgiving attest to the conviction that the shrine is a shrine of miracles.
On any given year, the letters of petitions outnumber the letters of thanksgiving by a huge margin. Of the total letters received every year, 85% to 90% are letters of petitions while 10% to 15% are letters of thanksgiving. In 2016, for example, 136,819 letters of petitions were received which represents 87.83% of the total letters received while only 18,954 letters of thanksgiving were received which represents 12.17% of the total letters received. This does not accurately reflect, however, the actual number of petitions and thanksgiving of the devotees. For one, not all devotees write letters of petitions and thanksgiving to Our Mother of Perpetual Help.
From the thanksgiving letters we read every Wednesday, one important albeit hard insight that devotees learn is that in prayer they receive may not be the answer which they desire, but the answer which God in his wisdom and love knows to be best. Not all petitions from the devotees were answered by God in the exact way and time that the devotees hoped for. Cecilia and Gerald Salandanan learned this hard truth but their confidence in Our Mother of Perpetual Help never wavered. They share with us their experience through a thanksgiving letter written in September 3, 2014,
After 9 Wednesdays, I did not pray the novena again and I did not return to you as well. Not because I lost hope that you would not answer my petition at that time, but I had complete trust that you will not let me down. Thank you very much for you taught me to be strong and not let my impatience crush my faith. Even if my prayers were not answered immediately, my trust never waned, for all things happen for a reason and all things have an end. Thank you very much for my husband is finally home after 5 months of sickness, hardship, anger, tears and loneliness. Even though it has been painful and difficult, I believe that all things happen according to the will of God. Impossible things become possible. All is miracle, dear Mother. And I will not be surprised because I know that God the Father and almighty God will make all things to mend our lives through your prayers.
Even though their prayers were not answered in the way they expected it, Our Mother of Perpetual Help empowers and strengthens them as they continue to hope that God will respond to their prayers in the way that God knows what is best for them. As the devotees pray in the novena, “Make us aware that God never ceases to love us; that He answers all our prayers in the way that is best for us.” Krystelline Jimenez testifies to this conviction in her thanksgiving letter February 3, 2016,
I have prayed the Novena every Wednesday morning for a couple of years now. Some of my petitions were answered with a “no”, some were “not yet” but most were “YES”. But more than the petitions, the Novena gives me a sense of security, a sense of peace, where nothing could ever go wrong. I thank the Lord and Mama Mary for taking care of me and my family despite my shortcomings. Thank you for my whole life, including the No and Not yets.
There are some devotees where many of their petitions were not even answered. Despite this, they continue to come to the shrine. For them, the warm presence and loving gaze of Our Mother of Perpetual Help is enough as it gives them inner peace and strength. This is the experience of Ritchie Limpin who wrote in July 08, 2014,
For a person who has many concerns like me—a single mom who brings up my children alone, it is only to Our Mother of Perpetual Help that I hold on to. I must admit, there are times that I started to ask myself, what do I get out of coming here besides the profound peace I feel whenever I come to this place? Are there any prayers that she has already heard and come true? Despite all of these, I continue to visit her even though sometimes there is nothing that I can think of anymore to pray for. I just remain sitting or kneeling there and praying the novena.
For the petitions answered, however, they are not just graces coming from God but supplemented by human efforts and cooperation. As the Filipino saying goes, “Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa” (Mercy is God’s, action is with people) implies that prayer must be complemented by action and action must be supplemented by prayer. This is the experience of Mr. and Mrs. Rogelio and Jessie Sugcang. For 13 years they were devotee of Our Mother of Perpetual Help. They had a son who was a drug addict. He was living with them. He had two children. Whenever he gets high on drugs, he becomes out of control; he threatens them, he wanted to kill them. For almost four years they prayed to OMPH. For them only a miracle could save their son. Because of their unwavering faith and devotion, the couple’s prayers were answered. His son found a job in the ship overseas. Now their son is successful in his career and living a life guided by Our Mother of Perpetual Help.
Through the various favors identified by devotees in their thanksgiving letters throughout the years, the Redemptorists have come up with classes of favors received by the devotees. There are 17 classes of favors, these are: Spiritual Favours, Conversion, Peace in the Home, Reconciliation, Partner in Life, Health & Recovery from Sickness, Delivered from All Dangers, Gift of a Child and Safe Delivery, Financial Help, Education & Success in Studies Board Exam, Travel Abroad, Local Employment, Overseas Employment, Social Justice & Peace in Society, Legal Favours, and Temporal Favours. The favors that were not clearly identified by the devotees in their thanksgiving letters were classified as unspecified and/or all the blessings.
The table below shows how many favors were received by the devotees per category in 2016.
Favors Answered from the Thanksgiving Letters Received, 2016
Pang- Espiritual na mga Biyaya
Conversion / Pagbabalik-loob
Peace in the Home
Kapayapaan sa Tahanan
Partner in life/ Katuwang sa Buhay
Health and Recovery from Sickness
Kalusugan at Paggaling
Delivered from All Dangers
Kaligtasan sa mga Sakuna
Gift of a Child and Safe Delivery
Pagkakaroon ng Anak
Financial Help /Tulong Pinansyal
Education and Success in Studies
Board Exam/ Pagpasa sa Eksamen
Pagbyahe sa Ibang Bansa
Local Employment / Lokal na Trabaho
Trabaho sa ibang Bansa
Social Justice and Peace in Society
Katarungan at Kapayapaan Panlipunan
Legal Favours/ Pang-legal na Biyaya
Pang Material na Biyaya
Unspecified/ All the Blessings
Lahat ng mga Biyaya
From the table above, we can see that the highest number of favor received was unspecified favors. 13,681 devotees have received it which makes for 72.18% of all favors received. Health favors and recovery from sickness came in second where 1,262 devotees received it which make for 6.65% of all favors received. 910 devotees received spiritual favors which represents 4.80% of all favors received. 589 devotees received local employment which represents 2.63% of the total favors received.
 Karl Rahner’s answer when he was once asked whether he believed in miracles. Accessed at https://www.mary.org/blog/201601/do-you-believe-miracles#.WwX62UiFO70
 Johann G. Roten, S. M., Marian Devotion for the New Millennium, Marian Studies, L1 (2000), 65.
 The apparition is known in the Philippines for the rose petals which allegedly fell within the vicinity of the monastery; some of these bear religious images, and are held be some to be miraculous. Initially declared “non-supernatural” after a thorough investigation by six Filipino bishops headed by Cardinal Rufino Santos on 11 April 1951, the case was reopened in 1991 with extensive research and investigation. In a reversal of fortune, on 12 September 2015, the Archbishop of Lipa Ramón Argüelles, against explicit direction from the Holy See and the Bishops Conference of the Philippines, formally approved the apparitions, declaring them “supernatural in character and worthy of belief.” On 11 December 2015, the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith ruled out that the Marian apparition are definitively non-supernatural based on the coerced negative verdict of six Filipino bishops in 1951 and the alleged confirmation of the same verdict by Pope Pius XII in the 1960s. The Archbishop of Lipa received the official copy on May 31 of final verdict. On 1 June 2016, Archbishop Arguelles released a public statement retracting his episcopal judgment on the controversial matter, reverting to the decision issued by the Vatican. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Lady_Mediatrix_of_All_Graces
 Frank Graziano, Miraculous Images and Votive Offerings in Mexico (Oxford University Press, 2016), 86.
[T]he church of the Philippines, as pueblo amante de Maria, “a people in love with Mary,” will always continue to seek her intercession and learn from her way of life what we need to be as a community of disciples. She is truly what her oldest image in the Philippines call her: Nuestra Senora de Guia, Our Lady who guides our way.
The wonderful phenomenon in Baclaran could not have happened without the warm affection of Filipino devotees to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Baclaran is the quintessential expression of the phrase, pueblo amante de Maria, “bayang sumisinta kay Maria,” a people in love with Mary. This is shown by the fact that more than a hundred thousand devotees flock to Baclaran every Wednesday. Numbers alone, however, could not fully define the devotion to Mary of Baclaran. As Fr. Sam Boland affirms,
“Numbers have long since ceased to have much significance in Baclaran. The church belongs to the people, and they are there to be seen and to provide inspiration by a piety that is so visible and so obviously genuine.”
In my almost ten years of ministry at the National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help in Baclaran I have been privileged to witness the outpouring of affection of the Filipinos to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. On any given Wednesday at Baclaran I am always amazed at the sheer faith and resilient hope of the thousands of devotees who flock to the Shrine. Enduring the heat and rain, the traffic, the pollution, the vendors, they make their way to the shrine to pray the novena and celebrate the sacraments of the Eucharist and reconciliation.
Filipinos have taken Our Mother of Perpetual Help into their homes and communities. Devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help has become an important part of the heritage of the nation and identity of the people. It has shaped the Filipino identity and the Filipino culture has shaped devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. A slogan popularized by the shrine captures this special devotion: “Filipino ako, Deboto ng Ina ng Laging Saklolo” (I am a Filipino, Devotee of Our Mother of Perpetual Help). Filipinos are proud to profess it wherever they go, whether here or abroad. It’s almost like being a devotee of Our Mother of Perpetual Help comes with being a Filipino.
Our Mother of Perpetual Help is no longer a Redemptorist franchise. Our Mother of Perpetual Help has become an essential aspect of the ecclesial life of the Philippine church. Almost every parish in the whole country, pray the novena to Our Mother of Perpetual Help every Wednesday. Many religious and clergy are devotees of Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Indeed, the Philippines is a Marian country.
Philippines: A Marian Country
The pastoral letter on the Blessed Virgin Mary by the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines in 1975, Ang Mahal na Birhen, declares the very special place of the Mother of Christ in the life of the Filipino people. The letter particularly notes the deeply rooted veneration to Mary in the socio-religious structure of the Filipino Christian family: “A familiar sight in many homes, even of modest income, is what can be called the ‘family altar.’ In most families the image venerated is the image of the Virgin Mary under one of her familiar invocations.” Mary’s special place amongst the Filipinos is also expressed in the patronage of Mary in many local churches all over the country:
“[A] very large number of parishes are dedicated to the Mother of God under one of her many invocations. Four hundred sixty-three, or over one-fourth of all parishes, have the Virgin Mary as their titular patron without counting innumerable barrio chapels, religious oratories or private shrines dedicated to her.”
Over 100 of the parishes honor the Immaculate Conception, over 60 are dedicated to Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, while others carry various titles like the Assumption, Our Lady of Carmel, Mother of Perpetual Help, Our Lady of Lourdes, etc. The various manifestations of popular piety towards the Mother of God appear not only in the number of churches, chapels, or shrines consecrated to her, but in many other forms, ranging from the liturgical celebration of her feasts throughout the year to religious calendars with the holy picture of Mary — not always of the most artistic nature, it must be acknowledged — in the most humble nipa huts or in the slums of the cities, to her picture in public vehicles, buses or jeepneys. Grottoes dedicated to the Immaculate Conception under the invocation of Lourdes are found in private gardens or in various public places, along the roads or in corners of modest dwellings. The endless symphony of Marian names in the baptismal records of our parishes … It may be safely said that of the names of saintly women imposed in Baptism, none is more frequently found than the name of Mary either expressly or in one of her many titles.
But what is behind the Filipinos as “pueblo amante de Maria”? What is behind the Filipino people’s exuberant zeal for Mary?
Drinking from their Own Well: Wellspring of Filipinos’ Love for Mary
Religiosity is deeply embedded in the Filipino psyche. Filipinos are deeply spiritual and religious people even before the Spanish Friars came to transplant Christianity to the country. According to V.G. Enriquez, Filipinos had their own native religion before Islam and Christianity came to their land. This was a monotheistic religion based on the belief on a Supreme Being. While Z. Salazar states that the faith of the early Filipinos was based on the belief in anito which is considered as pure soul, pure spirit and God. Likewise, J.C. Sevilla asserts that the native Filipinos have many religious rituals like devotion before the Spanish missionaries came. The subterranean religiosity and animistic belief did not disappear even after 400 years of Christianity as Leonado Mercado declares, “The Filipinos are animists in their heart despite the 400 years of Roman Catholicism.”
The rich pre-Spanish religiosity of the Filipinos presents a very important premise. As with every culture and people, the indigenous Filipinos were not tabula rasa in terms of worldview and belief before the Spanish colonizers and missionaries came. Filipinos received Catholicism in the milieu of their indigenous religion and culture which they never relinquished even up to now. Ironically, the indigenous religion of the natives, the very stamp which the Spanish missionaries have fought so hard to eradicate, became the source of hospitality for the natives in receiving the new faith. Hospitality of the Filipinos, therefore, was not just the welcoming of the foreign but also making the foreign religion their own in the context of their indigenous beliefs and religiosity.
The Christian proselytization of the Philippines was therefore not based on an unequal negotiation where only one has the goods while the other has nothing to offer. This belies the notion that the Spanish missionaries brought Christianity to a waiting Filipino natives who had nothing to offer to the missionaries in return. In other words, it was not merely a giver-receiver relationship. Native Filipinos had their native religion and culture while Spanish missionaries had their Spanish culture and Catholic religion. Christianity as represented by the Spanish missionaries and indigenous religion as represented by the Filipino natives benefited from a process of mutual conversion during the beginnings of Spanish colonial era in the Philippines. Thus, the Christian evangelization in the Philippines was a two way process. The Spanish colonizers brought Christianity to the islands to transform the indigenous religion of the natives but in the process the indigenous religion also transformed Christianity. This mutual conversion became the unique stamp of Christianity of the Philippines today.
The above premise is essential in understanding the early Filipinos’ embrace of Mary. The Filipino natives attributed to Mary some of their ancient beliefs and rituals. Karl Gaspar, for example, contends that the Filipinos’ penchant for Mary can be rooted to indigenous Filipinos’ worship of indigenous goddesses. The matriarchal belief system that arose since the beginning of cultures privileged not just the notion of a female deity but a most highly revered Mother Goddess. Gaspar argues that this expression of the “feminine principle” is integral to the pre-conquest ancestors’ indigenous belief system. Like many other traditional societies, the feminine principle within indigenous Filipino’s belief system is manifested in the matriarchal elements in their culture. Manuel Victor Sapitula also argues that the “feminine principle” strongly resonates with the devotion to the Virgin Mary. Comparing among religious traditions, the figure of the Virgin Mary is analogous to a number of female divine figures and deities.
The feminine principle of Filipino indigenous spirituality is further manifested through the work of indigenous priestesses called babaylans. Babaylan is a Visayan term identifying an indigenous Filipino religious leader, who functions as a healer, a shaman, a seer and a community “miracle-worker” (or a combination of any of those). The Northern Tagalog Region equivalent of babaylan is katalonan. The word “katalo” means “in good terms with.” The babaylan were predominantly female. Gaspar claims that there are males who appropriated this role but they had to speak, dress up and gesticulate like women.
Spanish Times: Marianization of Filipino Religiosity or Filipinization of Marian Spirituality?
When the Spanish missionaries came in the 16th century, the Filipino’s embrace of Mary was one of the key factors to the widespread and surprisingly peaceful Christianization of the islands. This position is the main thesis of Pedro Vasquez Zafe’s dissertation on the role of Marian devotion during the Spanish evangelization of the Philippines:
“The early missionaries who came to the Philippines from Spain from the very beginning found that the devotion to the Blessed Mother was so readily received by the natives, that they increasingly made it a significant part of their evangelizing work.”
The Filipino Catholic faith would not be like as it is today if not for the Filipino’s warm devotion to Mary, Zafe argues.
“[T]he Philippines would not be what it is now-the only Catholic nation in the Orient-were it not, as history testifies, [due] to the many interventions of Mary in answer to the tender and filial devotion which the Filipino people professed towards her.”
Zafe describes further how the Spanish missionaries were so pleased about the natives’ very eager reception to the devotion to the Mother of God everywhere in the islands. Filipinos were taught and with great readiness adopted practices of Marian devotion: prayed the Rosary specially, joined Marian associations the missionaries organized, venerated Marian images, and those who had acquired reading and writing skills, read devotional treatises and other books on the Blessed Virgin Mary. Marian shrines were built and multiplied rapidly throughout the islands. Marian images were venerated from the earliest period of evangelization; each image “had its own story to tell”: stories of faith and its rewards, stories of devotion and love and its blessings, stories of prayers offered and wonders wrought-miracles duly recorded, investigated and given credence by church authorities, all received through the intercession of the Blessed Mother, revered in so many of her images, invoked under her different names.
Catalino Arevalo also commented about how visitors from Europe going through the city of Manila, and through many other towns in the evenings during the Spanish times, were amazed upon hearing the rosary recited in every house they passed. On barges and in boats bringing people from place to place, travelers would sing hymns to Our Lady, and pray the Hail Mary’s of the rosary through much of the journey. At daybreak, the town’s leaders and its students would gather at the church for the Angelus and rosary, and on given days, the Mass. In the afternoons, as the day was ending, once again, the Angelus and the rosary, with practically everyone among the townsfolk participating. Before the families slept at their homes for the night, before the church doors shut for the day, there would be devotions once again, ending (as the canonical hours do) with hymns to the Mother of God, the Salve Regina above all.
Ang Mahal na Birhen also affirms the early Filipinos’ warm reception to Mary. The Filipinos’ warm reception to Mary during the Spanish times was shown through the establishment of many religious and lay orders and sodalities dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in the mid-eighteenth century:
“[T]he first Filipino congregation for religious women, dedicated from its beginning to the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Philippines, popularly known as Religious of the Virgin Mary … the Barangay Sang Birhen, the Sodality of Our Lady, the Legion of Mary, the Association of the Children of Mary Immaculate, are [all] fruits of the same devotion and have contributed in their own way to the development of Christian life in the Archipelago.”
While Zafe and Arevalo positively described Filipino’s warm reception to Mary during the Spanish times, however, they never linked it with the Filipino’s inchoate religiosity and archetypal worship of mother goddess. Could it be that the feminine principle of Filipino indigenous spirituality prepared them for the warm acceptance of Mary during the Spanish evangelization? Zafe and Arevalo are silent about this.
Gaspar, on the other hand, asserts that the native’s indigenous worship of a Mother Goddess transferred to a Marian devotion during the Spanish times, like the case of Nuestra Seňora de Peňafrancia, known as Ina throughout the Bicol region. Sapitula concurs with Gaspar by asserting that the story of the devotion of Bicolanos to Nuestra Seňora de Peňafrancia shows how the local population re-appropriated conventional Marian symbols within their own cultural notions, despite attempts by Spanish missionaries to “domesticate” her according to their own categories of passivity (see Brewer 2001).
Sapitula further expounds that the veneration of images of Christ, Mary and the saints became the replacement for the pre-conquest practice of worshipping larawans (animist images). The predisposition toward iconic representations of divine power enabled the local population to identify with Christian images as replacements of their pre-conquest divinities, as these were absorbed into their existing indigenous sacral iconography (Mojares 2002). Similarly, the Spanish missionaries found great potential in the work of babaylans in propagating devotion to Mary. The missionaries effectively attributed the work of Babaylan the meaning of Marian beliefs. They substituted pagan practices done by babaylans with devotion to the Virgin May but serving the same function. An example of this is recounted by the Jesuit missionary chronicler Pedro Chirino:
A plague of locusts had been doing great damage in the island for two years. In order to obtain from God a remedy for this evil, they chose the most holy Virgin Mary as their intercessor, and made a vow to celebrate the feast of her most pure Conception, and to give on that occasion liberal alms as aid for the marriages of the poor and the orphans. They fulfilled their promises, and our Lord received their humble service, showing them that He was well pleased by turning aside the locusts from their crops, and giving them that year very abundant harvests. All the people of the village have now directed to the Church that recourse and dependence which they formerly had on the ministers of the devil.
When the icon of Our Mother of Perpetual Help arrived in the Philippines in 1906, profound affection to Mary was already deeply ingrained in the Filipino consciousness. Filipino’s affection to Mary during the Spanish times rooted in their inchoate religiosity and archetypal worship of mother goddess made easier for the formation of devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help. Despite that Our Mother of Perpetual Help is different from the images and statues of Mary they venerated during the Spanish times, Filipinos embraced the icon as it appealed to them as the person of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Filipinos’ devotion to Mary has contributed greatly to sustaining the Catholic faith in the Philippines. Ang Mahal na Birhen recognizes this important reality. Mary has been, and remains, a central inspiring force among the masses of our people in “the preservation of our Catholic Faith, and the principle of deeper and fuller evangelization”
I have personally witnessed this many times when I gave missions to the people living in far flung areas. Attending mass was practically impossible for them. The only means that sustain their spiritual hunger is their devotion to Mary through the rosary, processions and the novena. Even where religious instruction among Catholics is inadequate, the Filipino always holds on to the devotion to Mary as a source of inspiration and an aid to salvation. This devotion, even in an imperfect form is a positive asset that we pray will always be ours.
There is a profound source for the warm affection of the Filipinos to Mary. The wellspring of Filipinos’ affection for Mary is rooted from their indigenous culture and religiosity. God has planted in the hearts of the Filipino the love and affection for Mary even before the Redemptorist arrived in the Philippines in 1906; even before the icon was brought to their homes and even before the novena was prayed in the churches of Redemptorist and all the churches in the Philippines.
Today devotion to Our Mother of Perpetual Help is the most popular Marian devotion in the Philippines.
 The expression, “Pueblo amante de Maria” were originally words found in a Eucharistic hymn (written in 1937) often sung in the Philippines when Spanish was more understood than it is at present: “a people devoted to Mary, a people who love Mary.” See Catalino G. Arevalo, S.J., Mary in Philippine Catholic Life, Landas 14 (2000): 106-116, 106.
 Sevilla, J.C. (1982). Filipino religious psychology: A commentary. Nasa R. Pe-Pua (pat.), Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at Gamit. [pp. 306-314]. Lungsod Quezon: University of the Philippines
 Mercado, L. (1977) Retrospect: Some comments on Filipino religious psychology. Nasa L. Mercado (pat). Filipino Religious Psychology: Kumprensyang Rehiyonal sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino (pp180-188). Tacloban City: Divine Word University Publications.
 Karl Gaspar, Embracing the Mother’s Perpetual Compassion: The Specific Place of Our Mother of Perpetual Help Icon-Novena in the Philippines’ Varied Marian Devotions,6.
 Gaspar, Embracing the Mother’s Perpetual Compassion, 11.
 Zafe, Marian Devotion: Its Role in the Evangelization of the Philippines, 150.
 Pedro Vasquez Zafe, Marian Devotion: Its Role in the Evangelization of the Philippines [Dissertation presented to the Faculty of Sacred Theology]. Rome: Pontifical University of Saint Thomas, 1968, 154.
 Zafe, Marian Devotion: Its Role in the Evangelization of the Philippines, 105-17.
 Zafe, Marian Devotion: Its Role in the Evangelization of the Philippines, 105-17.
 Arevalo, S.J., “Mary in Philippine Catholic Life,” 110.
 Arevalo, S.J., “Mary in Philippine Catholic Life,” 109.
 Pedro Chirino, SJ., Relaciόn de las Islas Filipinas y de lo que en ellas han trabajado los Padres de la Compaňia de Jesŭs (2nd ed.; Manila, 1890), 74 – 78. Taken from John Shumacher, SJ., Readings in Philippine History, Quezon: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1979, 76, #43